北京大学学报(医学版) ›› 2018, Vol. 50 ›› Issue (5): 855-860. doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2018.05.016

• 论著 • 上一篇    下一篇

非人类免疫缺陷病毒感染肺隐球菌病34例临床分析

倪莲芳1,王鹤2,李虹1,张志刚1,刘新民1△   

  1. (北京大学第一医院 1. 老年科,2. 医学影像科, 北京100034)
  • 出版日期:2018-10-18 发布日期:2018-10-18
  • 通讯作者: 刘新民 E-mail: lxm2128@163.com

Clinical analysis of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus infection patients

NI Lian-fang1, WANG He2, LI Hong1, ZHANG Zhi-gang1, LIU Xin-min1△   

  1. (1. Department of Geriatrics, 2. Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China)
  • Online:2018-10-18 Published:2018-10-18
  • Contact: LIU Xin-min E-mail: lxm2128@163.com

摘要: 目的:分析非人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染肺隐球菌病的临床特点,提高临床医生对本病的认识,减少误诊和漏诊。方法:回顾性分析1997年6月至2016年6月在北京大学第一医院住院治疗的非HIV感染肺隐球菌病患者的临床表现、影像学特征、实验室检查、治疗及预后。结果:共收集非HIV感染肺隐球菌病病例34例,其中男22例,女12例,年龄20~75岁,平均(50.1±15.0)岁,包括存在宿主因素和(或)基础疾病的免疫损害患者16例。67.6%患者因症状就诊,常见症状依次为咳嗽、发热、胸痛、憋气、咯血,32.4%患者没有任何症状。常见胸部影像学表现为斑片、实变影及结节团块影。20例行隐球菌荚膜多糖抗原检测,19例阳性。11例行腰椎穿刺术脑脊液检查,3例合并中枢神经系统隐球菌感染。24例患者初诊时被误诊,其中11例误诊为肺癌。经皮肺穿刺活体组织检查确诊15例,经手术确诊11例,临床诊断8例。手术切除治疗11例,中位随访4年,1例复发。药物抗真菌治疗23例,中位随访8年,3例失访,1例复发。与免疫正常组相比,免疫损害组患者年龄更高(P=0.017)、肺部湿啰音更多(P=0.006)、外周血白细胞或中性粒细胞百分比升高者更多(P=0.003),但在症状、肺部影像特点及住院时间方面无明显差异。结论:非HIV感染肺隐球菌病的临床症状、体征没有特异性,诊断依靠组织病理检查,临床高度怀疑的患者应首选经皮肺穿刺活体组织检查。隐球菌荚膜多糖抗原检测的灵敏度高,检测阳性有临床疑似诊断价值。规范抗真菌治疗是肺隐球菌病的主要治疗方法,大多数患者预后良好。

关键词:  , 肺疾病, 真菌性, 隐球菌病, 非HIV感染

Abstract: Objective: To improve the understanding of the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV) infection patients and reduce delay in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis. Methods: The clinical features, imaging characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatment and prognosis of 34 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively analyzed. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital from June 1997 to June 2016. Results: There were 34 cases diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis, including 22 males and 12 females, aged from 20 to 75 years [average: (50.1±15.0) years]. There were 16 cases with host factors and (or) underlying diseases named immunocompromised group. In the study, 67.6% patients had clinical symptoms while 32.4% patients had no symptoms. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis in sequence. Common chest imaging findings were patchy infiltrates, consolidation, single or multiple nodular or masses shadows. Among the 20 cases with cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen detection, 19 were positive. Eleven cases underwent routine cerebrospinal fluid examination, and 3 cases complicated with central nervous system cryptococcal infection. At first visit, 24 cases were misdiagnosed, among which, 11 cases were misdiagnosed as lung cancer. The diagnosis of 15 cases was proved by percutaneous lung biopsy and 11 were confirmed by surgery, while 8 were diagnosed clinically. Then 11 cases were treated by surgical resection, and in median 4 years’ follow-up, there was 1 case of recurrence. And 23 cases were treated with antifungal therapy, and in median 8 years’ follow-up, 3 cases lost to the follow-up and 1 case of recurrence. Compared with normal immune group, immunocompromised patients had higher ages (P=0.017), more crackles (P=0.006) and more percentage of increase of peripheral white blood cells or neutrophils (P=0.003), but no significant difference in symptoms, imaging characteristics or hospitalization time. Conclusion: There were no specific clinical symptoms and signs for pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patients. Diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis depends on pathology. Percutaneous lung biopsy was mostly recommended for clinical highly suspected patients. Cryptoeoccal capsular polysaccharide antigen detection had a high sensitivity for the clinical diagnosis. Antifungal drug therapy was the major treatment, and the prognosis of the most patients was good.

Key words: Lung diseases, fungal, Cryptococcosis, Non-HIV infections

中图分类号: 

  • R519.4
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