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18 April 2024, Volume 56 Issue 2
  • Dynamic trajectory and cell communication of different cell clusters in malignant progression of glioblastoma
    Xiang CAI,Rendong WANG,Shijia WANG,Ziqi REN,Qiuhong YU,Dongguo LI
    2024, (2):  199-206.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.001    
    Abstract ( 213 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (5295KB) ( 494 )   Save
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    Objective: To delve deeply into the dynamic trajectories of cell subpopulations and the communication network among immune cell subgroups during the malignant progression of glioblastoma (GBM), and to endeavor to unearth key risk biomarkers in the GBM malignancy progression, so as to provide a more profound understanding for the treatment and prognosis of this disease by integrating transcriptomic data and clinical information of the GBM patients. Methods: Utilizing single-cell sequencing data analysis, we constructed a cell subgroup atlas during the malignant progression of GBM. The Monocle2 tool was employed to build dynamic progression trajectories of the tumor cell subgroups in GBM. Through gene enrichment analysis, we explored the biological processes enriched in genes that significantly changed with the malignancy progression of GBM tumor cell subpopulations. CellChat was used to identify the communication network between the different immune cell subgroups. Survival analysis helped in identifying risk molecular markers that impacted the patient prognosis during the malignant progression of GBM. This method ological approach offered a comprehensive and detailed examination of the cellular and molecular dynamics within GBM, providing a robust framework for understanding the disease' s progression and potential therapeutic targets. Results: The analysis of single-cell sequencing data identified 6 different cell types, including lymphocytes, pericytes, oligodendrocytes, macrophages, glioma cells, and microglia. The 27 151 cells in the single-cell dataset included 3 881 cells from the patients with low-grade glioma (LGG), 10 166 cells from the patients with newly diagnosed GBM, and 13 104 cells from the patients with recurrent glioma (rGBM). The pseudo-time analysis of the glioma cell subgroups indicated significant cellular heterogeneity during malignant progression. The cell interaction analysis of immune cell subgroups revealed the communication network among the different immune subgroups in GBM malignancy, identifying 22 biologically significant ligand-receptor pairs across 12 key biological pathways. Survival analysis had identified 8 genes related to the prognosis of the GBM patients, among which SERPINE1, COL6A1, SPP1, LTF, C1S, AEBP1, and SAA1L were high-risk genes in the GBM patients, and ABCC8 was low-risk genes in the GBM patients. These findings not only provided new theoretical bases for the treatment of GBM, but also offered fresh insights for the prognosis assessment and treatment decision-making for the GBM patients. Conclusion: This research comprehensively and profoundly reveals the dynamic changes in glioma cell subpopulations and the communication patterns among the immune cell subgroups during the malignant progression of GBM. These findings are of significant importance for understanding the complex biological processes of GBM, providing crucial new insights for precision medicine and treatment decisions in GBM. Through these studies, we hope to provide more effective treatment options and more accurate prognostic assessments for the patients with GBM.

    Expression relationship and significance of NEAT1 and miR-27a-3p in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer disease
    Lijie HE,Chunyan ZHANG,Jing WANG
    2024, (2):  207-212.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.002    
    Abstract ( 122 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (689KB) ( 204 )   Save
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    Objective: To explore the expression relationship and significance of long chain non-coding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (LncRNA NEAT1) and miR-27a-3p in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Sixty-six AD patients received by the department of neurology of our hospital from October 2019 to September 2021 were gathered, according to the clinical dementia rating scale score, they were grouped into mild group (≤1 point, n=41) and moderate-to-severe group (>1 point, n=25). Another 66 cases of serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from outpatient physical examination personnel were regarded as the control group. The general information on all subjects was recorded and cognition was assessed; real-time quantitative PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of miR-27a-3p and NEAT1 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure the protein levels of β-amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), β-amyloid (Aβ) 40 and Aβ42 in cerebrospinal fluid; Spearman' s method was performed to analyze the correlation of serum miR-27a-3p and NEAT1 levels with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) scores; Pearson method was performed to analyze the correlation between serum miR-27a-3p and NEAT1 levels and Aβ deposition standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) and cerebrospinal fluid miR-27a-3p, NEAT1, BACE1, Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels. Results: The MMSE score [21 (17, 25), 9(7, 11) vs. 27 (21, 34)], MoCA score [17 (12, 21), 10 (7, 13) vs. 27 (21, 31)], serum miR-27a-3p level (0.55±0.13, 0.46±0.06 vs. 0.97±0.22), cerebrospinal fluid miR-27a-3p (0.48±0.10, 0.35±0.10 vs. 1.03±0.31), Aβ42 levels [(303.55±36.77) ng/L, (231.45±34.14) ng/L vs. (499.99±53.63) ng/L] and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio (0.030±0.008, 0.022±0.007 vs. 0.048±0.010) of AD patients in mild group and moderate-to-severe group were all lower than those in the control group, and the moderate-to-severe group were lower than the mild group (all P < 0.05); the serum NEAT1 level (2.31±0.64, 3.13±0.76 vs. 1.05±0.20), SUVR (1.50±0.29, 1.76±0.52 vs. 0.74±0.15), and cerebrospinal fluid NEAT1 (3.51±1.24, 4.30±1.65 vs. 1.01±0.23) and BACE1 levels [(55.78±5.98) μg/L, (72.32±16.08) μg/L vs. (21.39±3.73) μg/L] were higher than those in the control group, and the moderate-to-severe group were higher than the mild group (all P < 0.05). Serum NEAT1 level in AD patients was positively correlated with SUVR, cerebrospinal fluid NEAT1 and BACE1 (r=0.350, 0.606, 0.341, P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with MMSE score and MoCA score (r=-0.473, -0.482, all P < 0.05); serum miR-27a-3p level was positively correlated with cerebrospinal fluid miR-27a-3p level, MMSE score and MoCA score (r=0.695, 0.424, 0.412, all P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with SUVR and cerebrospinal fluid BACE1 level (r=-0.521, -0.447, all P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expression trends of NEAT1 and miR-27a-3p in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients are consistent, the level of NEAT1 is increased, and the level of miR-27a-3p is decreased. The levels of the two are negatively correlated, which is related to the degree of Aβ deposition in the brain of AD patients and is involved in the progression of AD.

    Developmental toxicity of Cry1Ab protein in the embryonic stem-cell model
    Yuanzhi JIAN,Fei WANG,Ning YIN,Ruoyu ZHOU,Junbo WANG
    2024, (2):  213-222.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.003    
    Abstract ( 76 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (4064KB) ( 127 )   Save
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    Objective: To evaluate the developmental toxicity of Cry1Ab protein by studying its effects on cell proliferation and differentiation ability using a developmental toxicity assessment model based on embryonic stem-cell. Methods: Cry1Ab protein was tested in seven dose groups (31.25, 62.50, 125.00, 250.00, 320.00, 1 000.00, and 2 000.00 μg/L) on mouse embryonic stem cells D3 (ES-D3) and 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) used as the positive control and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as the solvent control. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay to calculate the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the test substance for different cells. Additionally, Cry1Ab protein was tested in five dose groups (125.00, 250.00, 320.00, 1 000.00, and 2 000.00 μg/L) on ES-D3 cells, with PBS as the solvent control and 5-FU used for model validation. After cell treatment, cardiac differentiation was induced using the embryonic bodies (EBs) culture method. The growth of EBs was observed under a microscope, and their diameters on the third and fifth days were measured. The proportion of EBs differentiating into beating cardiomyocytes was recorded, and the 50% inhibition concentration of differentiation (ID50) was calculated. Based on a developmental toxicity discrimination function, the developmental toxicity of the test substances was classified. Furthermore, at the end of the culture period, mRNA expression levels of cardiac differentiation-related markers (Oct3/4, GATA-4, Nkx2.5, and β-MHC) were quantitatively detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the collected EBs samples. Results: The IC50 of 5-FU was determined as 46.37 μg/L in 3T3 cells and 32.67 μg/L in ES-D3 cells, while the ID50 in ES-D3 cells was 21.28 μg/L. According to the discrimination function results, 5-FU was classified as a strong embryotoxic substance. There were no statistically significant differences in cell viability between different concentrations of Cry1Ab protein treatment groups and the control group in both 3T3 cells and ES-D3 cells (P>0.05). Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the diameter of EBs on the third and fifth days, as well as their morphology, between the Cry1Ab protein treatment groups and the control group (P>0.05). The cardiac differentiation rate showed no statistically significant differences between different concentrations of Cry1Ab protein treatment groups and the control group (P>0.05). 5-FU significantly reduced the mRNA expression levels of β-MHC, Nkx2.5, and GATA-4 (P < 0.05), showing a dose-dependent trend (P < 0.05), while the mRNA expression levels of the pluripotency-associated marker Oct3/4 exhibited an increasing trend (P < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the mRNA expression levels of mature cardiac marker β-MHC, early cardiac differentiation marker Nkx2.5 and GATA-4, and pluripotency-associated marker Oct3/4 between the Cry1Ab protein treatment groups and the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion: No developmental toxicity of Cry1Ab protein at concentrations ranging from 31.25 to 2 000.00 μg/L was observed in this experimental model.

    Related factors and equity of health status among floating population in China based on geographic information system analysis
    Xiaohan LIU,Fan YANG,Xindi WANG,Ning HUANG,Taozhu CHENG,Jing GUO
    2024, (2):  223-229.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.004    
    Abstract ( 92 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1357KB) ( 93 )   Save
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    Objective: To understand the health status, influencing factors and spatial distribution of the Chinese floating population and to evaluate the health equity of the floating population. Methods: All the data were collected from the 2017 Migrant Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey in China, binary Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors that might affect the health of the floating population, and the concentration index method was used to evaluate the health equity of the floating population. Spatial autocorrelation analyses the spatial aggregation of health status and health equity. Results: The unhealthy rate of the floating population in China was 2.71%. Age and gender show a statistically significant impact on self-rated health; that is, as age increases, the self-rated health of the migrant population gradually deteriorates, and women are more likely to think that they are unhealthy. Fairness analysis shows that the concentration index of the floating population is 0.021 7, the urban household registration floating population is 0.021 6, and the rural household registration floating population is 0.021 9. It is shown that the fairness of the health status of the floating population is biased towards the high-income class, and the rural household registration floating population' s health unfairness is greater than that of the urban household registration migration population. Moreover, Moran' s i=0.211 for self-rated health and Moran' s i=0.291 for the unhealthy rate indicate that self-rated health has a spatial aggregation trend. Moran' s i=0.136 showed the characteristics of spatial clustering, and the two-week prevalence fairness of the floating population was mainly in the northern and southeastern coastal areas. Conclusion: In general, the health status of the floating population in China is relatively good. The main influencing factors of health included gender and age. The central tendency of health inequity is reflected in the southeast coastal and northern regions, which are characterized by poverty. Attention to spatial aggregation is not only helpful to analyze the reasons of floating population, but also to study the health differences between different regions and health-related factors, to improve the overall health level of the whole population.

    Sequential mediating role of digital participation and health lifestyle in the relationship between socioeconomic status and depression of older adults
    Huameng TANG,Dianqi YUAN,Mingxing WANG,Hanbing YANG,Chao GUO
    2024, (2):  230-238.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.005    
    Abstract ( 97 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2026KB) ( 132 )   Save
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    Objective: To explore the potential mechanisms of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and depression of Chinese older adults through the mediating role of digital participation and health lifestyle. Methods: Using the nationally representative data from the China Family Panel Studies in 2020, 4 846 participants aged 60 years and older were analyzed in our study. We explored the potential mechanisms of the relationship between SES and depression of Chinese older adults in the digital era through a chain multiple mediating effects model. The KHB (The Karlson, Holm, and Breen) method was used to analyze the mediating role of digital participation and health lifestyle and the proportion of mediating effect between the two was also calculated. A series of robustness tests were further conducted and the fit of the model was checked by structural equation modeling. Results: The mean age of the 4 846 older adults included in this study was (68.20±5.07) years, 48.06% of whom were female and 51.94% were male. The KHB results showed that both digital participation and health lifestyle could mediate the relationship between SES and depression of older adults (P < 0.000 1) and the mediating role of health lifestyle accounted for a greater proportion than digital participation. And our study mainly found three potential pathways of SES and depression of older adults, including: (1) SES → digital participation → health lifestyle → depression, (2) SES → health lifestyle → depression, and (3) SES → depression. Structural equation modeling tests proved the overall fit of the model in this study. Conclusion: Our findings showed that in the digital age, in addition to the direct relationship between SES and depression of older adults, and the health lifestyle as a mediator between the relationship, there is also a sequential mediating role of digital participation and health lifestyle to reduce the risk of depression. The findings suggest that we should pay more attention to the probability of the digital divide exacerbating health inequalities and socioeconomic inequalities accumulation in the digital age and promote the co-progress of digital literacy and health literacy among older adults.

    Investigation on the current situation and influencing factors of sitting time and health literacy among high school students in China
    Hejun SHEN,Chongyan SHI,Qing ZHENG,Yu HUANG,Tao JING
    2024, (2):  239-246.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.006    
    Abstract ( 83 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (722KB) ( 119 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the current situation of sitting time and health literacy among high school students in China, in order to provide a basis for improving their physical and mental health levels. Methods: A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to investigate the length of sitting time and health literacy of first and second grade high school students from 31 provinces, cities, and autonomous regions in China(data did not include that of Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Province of China). The Kruskal-Wallis H method, independent sample Mann-Whitney U test, and regression model were used to analyze the influencing factors of sitting time and total health literacy score. Results: (1) The total score of health literacy was statistically significant (P < 0.01) in different regions, urban and rural distribution, annual family income, parents' educational background, age, and gender. (2) The length of sitting was statistically significant (P < 0.01) among multiple groups in different regions, family annual income, parental education, and gender. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups of different ages and urban-rural distribution (P>0.05). (3) The analysis of multiple linear regression model showed that the total score of health literacy was positively correlated with the family' s annual income and the mother' s education, and negatively correlated with the father' s education and the length of sitting. Standardized regression coefficient β comparison: Father' s education (-0.32) > family annual income (0.15) > mother' s education (0.09) > average daily sitting time (-0.02), with father' s education having the greatest impact, followed by family annual income. The length of sitting was positively related to the family' s annual income and the mother' s educational background, and negatively related to the total score of health literacy. Standardized regression coefficient β comparison: Annual family income (0.14) > education background of mother (0.13)> total score of health literacy (-0.02), with the impact of annual family income the largest, followed by education background of mother. Conclusion: China' s first and second grade high school students generally spend a long time sitting every day, and the level of health literacy is generally low. The level of health literacy and sitting time are negatively correlated with each other, and are most influenced by the educational background of high school students' parents and their family economic levels.

    Characteristics of resting energy expenditure and evaluation of prediction formulas in young men with different body mass indexes
    Yifan WU,Yingxiang YU,Lan XIE,Zhida ZHANG,Cuiqing CHANG
    2024, (2):  247-252.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.007    
    Abstract ( 74 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (557KB) ( 64 )   Save
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    Objective: To compare the resting energy expenditure (REE) characteristics among young men with different body mass indexes (BMI). Methods: Thirty young men [average age was (26.93±4.16) years] were enrolled in this study. They underwent resting metabolism tests in the Department of Sports Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital from December 2017 to June 2021. The resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry, the body composition was measured by bioresistance antibody component analyzer. The REE characteristics were analyzed, and 11 predictive equations were used to estimate RMR and compared with the measured value. The differences were analyzed by paired t-test and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The RMR of the overall 30 young men was (1 960.17±463.11) kcal/d (1 kcal=4.186 8 kJ). Including (1 744.33±249.62) kcal/d in those with normal BMI, which was significantly lower than that in those who were overweight or obese [(2 104.06± 520.32) kcal/d, P < 0.01], but the weight-corrected RMR in those with normal BMI was significantly higher than that in those who were overweight or obese [(24.02±2.61) kcal/(kg·d) vs. (19.98±4.38) kcal/(kg·d), P < 0.01]. The RMR was significantly and positively correlated with body weight, adiposity, lean body mass, body surface area, and extracellular fluid in the subjects with diffe-rent BMI (all P < 0.05). The predicted values of the 11 prediction equations were not in good agreement with the measured values (all ICC < 0.75), with relatively high agreement between the predicted and measured values of the World Health Organization (WHO) equation in overweight obese young men (ICC=0.547, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There were significant differences in RMR among young men with different BMI, and the RMR after weight correction should be considered for those who were overweight or obese. The consistency between the predicted values of different prediction equations and the actual measured values of RMR was relatively poor, and it is recommended to accurately measure RMR by indirect calorimetry. For overweight or obese young men, the WHO prediction equation can be considered to calculate RMR, but it is necessary to establish an RMR prediction equation applicable to different BMI populations.

    Clinical remission and transmural healing of ustekinumab in patients with Crohn's disease
    Yun WU,Yalan XU,Guoyan ZHANG,Yuanyuan ZHANG,Junyao WANG,Peng YOU,Tao PENG,Yulan LIU,Ning CHEN
    2024, (2):  253-259.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.008    
    Abstract ( 75 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1733KB) ( 113 )   Save
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    Objective: To treat the Crohn's disease (CD) patients with ustekinumab (UST), to eva-luate their clinical and endoscopic remission, and to evaluate their transmural response (TR) and transmural healing (TH) condition using intestinal ultrasonography (IUS). Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on patients diagnosed with CD in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2020 to August 2022, who were treated with UST for remission induction and maintenance therapy. All the patients were evaluated on both week 8 and week 16/20 after treatment, including clinical, biochemical indicators, colonoscopy and IUS examination. Results: A total of 13 patients were enrolled in this study, including 11 males and 2 females. The minimum age was 23 years, the maximum age was 73 years and the mean age was 36.92 years. All the patients were in the active stage of disease before treatment, and the average Best Crohn's disease activity index (Best CDAI) score was 270.12±105.55. In week 8, the Best CDAI score of the patients decreased from 270.12±105.55 to 133.16±48.66 (t=4.977, P < 0.001). Eight patients achieved clinical remission while 5 patients remained in the active stage. Nine patients underwent colonoscopy evaluation. The average simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) score decreased from 10.71±7.14 before treatment to 6.00±7.81(t=2.483, P=0.048) in week 16/20. Four patients achieved endoscopic remission while 5 patients did not. In week 8, 5 patients achieved TR, 2 patients achieved TH, the other 6 patients did not get TR or TH. In week 16/20, 6 patients achieved TR, 3 patients achieved TH while the other 4 patients did not get TR or TH. There was no significant statistical difference in the TR effect of UST between small intestine and colon lesions (Fisher test, P > 0.999). The rate of UST transmural response in the patients who had had previous biological agent therapy was lower than those with no previous biological agent therapy, but there was no significant statistical difference (Fisher test, P=0.491). Conclusion: After treatment of UST, the clinical and endoscopic conditions of the CD patients had been improved, and some patients could achieve clinical remission and endoscopic remission. UST had good TR and TH effects on CD. TR might appear in week 8, and the TR effect increased in week 16/20. There was no significant statistical difference in the TR effect between small intestine and colon lesions. TR effect of UST was better in the patients who had no previous biological agent therapy than those who had had other biological agents, but the result had no significant statistical difference.

    Clinical characteristics of pregnancy complicated with inflammatory bowel disease
    Huichao MA,Jun LI,Yongqing WANG
    2024, (2):  260-266.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.009    
    Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (669KB) ( 53 )   Save
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    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in pre-pregnancy, pregancy and loctation. Methods: The clinical data of pregnancy complicated with IBD in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Third Hospital and deli-very from September 2011 to June 2022 were collected. The clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed retrospectively. According to the state of diseases during pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation, the patients were divided into active and remission group, and the two groups were compared interms of pre-pregnancy counseling, nutritional status, pregnancy and delivery complications, gestational week, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcome. Results: A total of 33 pregnant women with IBD were included in this study, of which 7 delivered a second child, for a total of 40 deliveries, with 36 natural pregnancies (90.0%) and 4 assisted reproductions (10.0%). Among the 40 cases, 21 cases (52.5%) were sustained in remission in pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and lactation, and 19 cases (47.5%) in disease activity, of which 8 cases (42.1%) were due to self-withdrawal of drugs or failure to take medicine regularly. Compared with the activity group, the disease remission group had a higher rate of pre-pregnancy counseling (57.1% vs. 15.8%, P=0.010), and higher levels of hemoglobin [(112.67±8.53) g/L vs. (102.84±5.23) g/L, P < 0.001], serum total protein [(66.58±6.34) g/L vs. (60.83±6.25) g/L, P=0.006], serum albumin [36.4 (35.1, 38.3) g/L vs. 34.3 (31.1, 35.6) g/L, P=0.006], serum calcium [(2.25±0.10) μmol/L vs. (2.13±0.15) μmol/L, P=0.004], but a lower incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders (0 vs. 31.6%, P=0.007). In 40 deliveries, there were 27 cases of vaginal delivery (67.5%), 13 cases of cesarean section (32.5%). The analysis of neonatal outcomes showed 38 full-term deliveries and 2 preterm deliveries; 1 case of macrosomia, 1 case of small-for-gestational-age, 1 case of low birth weight and 3 cases of birth defects. There were 10 newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care unit, including 4 cases of neonatal infections and 2 cases of neonatal jaundice. Conclusion: Pre-pregnancy counseling and evaluation of IBD patients are very important, and good pregnancy outcomes can be obtained through careful management during pregnancy in the most of the patients.

    Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection in patients undergoing hemodialysis
    Jinrong ZHU,Yana ZHAO,Wei HUANG,Weiwei ZHAO,Yue WANG,Song WANG,Chunyan SU
    2024, (2):  267-272.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.010    
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    Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of hemodialysis patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a single-center from Beijing. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 who received regular hemodialysis at Peking University Third Hospital from November 30, 2022 to January 4, 2023 were selected as the study objects. Clinical symptoms, severity and duration of symptoms during the period of virus positive were investigated in the form of questionnaires, and the basic information of the patients, as well as the results of blood tests (routine blood and blood biochemistry, etc.) before and after infection, dialysis treatment and the outcome of the disease were collected by consulting medical records. Results: A total of 203 subjects were included in this study, including 148 mild cases (72.91%), 23 medium cases (11.33%), 32 severe and critical cases (15.76%), and 16 (7.88%) deaths occured during the follow-up. Clinical symptoms mainly included respiratory symptoms (among which 81.77% had cough, 68.97% had expectoration), fever (81.28%) and fatigue (65.52%), and fatigue and weakness had the longest duration [9 (5, 15) days] among all symptoms. Twenty-six patients (12.8%) reduced the dialysis sessions [1 (1, 2) times], 25 patients (12.32%) had the behavior of early finishing dialysis (27 times), reducing the dialysis time by 30.0 (20.0, 30.5) minutes. Univa-riate analysis showed that the hemoglobin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and ultrafiltration decreased signi-ficantly after infection (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in age, albumin, hemoglobin, creatinine levels and vascular access types among the patients with different clinical subtypes, and the changes of dialysis sessions, fever, expectoration and fatigue degree were also different among the patients with different clinical subtypes (P < 0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.051, 95%CI: 1.017-1.086, P=0.003) and albumin levels (OR=0.905, 95%CI: 0.803-1.019, P=0.098) corrected by fever, expectoration and fatigue levels were still associated with the occurrence of pneumonia. Conclusion: The morbidity of pneumonia and the proportion of deaths in hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were higher, and some clinical symptoms lasted for a longer time than the general population. During the infection period, the incidence of dialysis-related complications increased, hemoglobin and nutritional status decreased. Elderly patients and patients with low albumin level had a higher risk of developing pneumonia after infection.

    Low disease activity and remission status of systemic lupus erythematosus in a real-world study
    Limin REN,Chuchu ZHAO,Yi ZHAO,Huiqiong ZHOU,Liyun ZHANG,Youlian WANG,Lingxun SHEN,Wenqiang FAN,Yang LI,Xiaomei LI,Jibo WANG,Yongjing CHENG,Jiajing PENG,Xiaozhen ZHAO,Miao SHAO,Ru Li
    2024, (2):  273-278.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.011    
    Abstract ( 69 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (999KB) ( 116 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the rates of low disease activity and clinical remission in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a real-world setting, and to analyze the related factors of low disease activity and clinical remission. Methods: One thousand patients with SLE were enrolled from 11 teaching hospitals. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, as well as treatment regimes were collec-ted by self-completed questionnaire. The rates of low disease activity and remission were calculated based on the lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) and definitions of remission in SLE (DORIS). Charac-teristics of patients with LLDAS and DORIS were analyzed. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the related factors of LLDAS and DORIS remission. Results: 20.7% of patients met the criteria of LLDAS, while 10.4% of patients achieved remission defined by DORIS. Patients who met LLDAS or DORIS remission had significantly higher proportion of patients with high income and longer disease duration, compared with non-remission group. Moreover, the rates of anemia, creatinine elevation, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and hypoalbuminemia was significantly lower in the LLDAS or DORIS group than in the non-remission group. Patients who received hydroxychloroquine for more than 12 months or immunosuppressant therapy for no less than 6 months earned higher rates of LLDAS and DORIS remission. The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that increased ESR, positive anti-dsDNA antibodies, low level of complement (C3 and C4), proteinuria, low household income were negatively related with LLDAS and DORIS remission. However, hydroxychloroquine usage for longer than 12 months were positively related with LLDAS and DORIS remission. Conclusion: LLDAS and DORIS remission of SLE patients remain to be improved. Treatment-to-target strategy and standar-dized application of hydroxychloroquine and immunosuppressants in SLE are recommended.

    Incidence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Xiaofei TANG,Yonghong LI,Qiuling DING,Zhuo SUN,Yang ZHANG,Yumei WANG,Meiyi TIAN,Jian LIU
    2024, (2):  279-283.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.012    
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    Objective: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: The clinical data of RA patients who were hospi-talized in the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology of Aerospace Center Hospital from May 2015 to September 2021 was retrospectively analyzed, including demographic characteristics, concomitant diseases, laboratory examinations (blood routine, biochemistry, coagulation, inflammatory markers, rheumatoid factor, antiphospholipid antibodies and lupus anticoagulant, etc.) and treatment regimens. The patients were compared according to the presence or absence of DVT, and the t test, Mann-Whitney U test or Chi-square test were applied to screen for relevant factors for DVT, followed by Logistic regression analysis to determine risk factors for DVT in patients with RA. Results: The incidence of DVT in the RA patients was 9.6% (31/322); the median age of RA in DVT group was significantly older than that in non-DVT group [64 (54, 71) years vs. 50 (25, 75) years, P < 0.001]; the level of disease activity score using 28 joints (DAS28)-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group [5.2 (4.5, 6.7) vs. 4.5(4.5, 5.0), P < 0.001]; the incidence of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, fracture or surgery history within 3 months, and varicose veins of the lower extremities in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group (P < 0.001). The levels of hemoglobin and albumin in DVT group were significantly lower than that in non-DVT group (P=0.009, P=0.004), while the D-dimer level and rheumatoid factor positive rate in DVT group were significantly higher than that in non-DVT group (P < 0.001). The use rate of glucocorticoid in DVT group was higher than that in non-DVT group (P=0.009). Logistic regression analysis showed that the age (OR=1.093, P < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR=7.955, P=0.005), fracture or surgery history within 3 months (OR=34.658, P=0.002), DAS28-ESR (OR=1.475, P=0.009), and the use of glucocorticoid (OR=5.916, P=0.003) were independent risk factors for DVT in RA patients. Conclusion: The incidence of DVT in hospitalized RA patients was significantly increased, in addition to traditional factors, such as age and chronic kidney disease, increased DAS28-ESR level and the use of glucocorticoid were also independent risk factors for DVT.

    A unicenter real-world study of the correlation factors for complete clinical response in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies
    Zhanhong LAI,Jiachen LI,Zelin YUN,Yonggang ZHANG,Hao ZHANG,Xiaoyan XING,Miao SHAO,Yuebo JIN,Naidi WANG,Yimin LI,Yuhui LI,Zhanguo LI
    2024, (2):  284-292.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.013    
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    Objective: To investigate the correlation factors of complete clinical response in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) patients receiving conventional treatment. Methods: Patients diagnosed with IIMs hospitalized in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2000 to June 2023 were included. The correlation factors of complete clinical response to conventional treatment were identified by analyzing the clinical characteristics, laboratory features, peripheral blood lymphocytes, immunological indicators, and therapeutic drugs. Results: Among the 635 patients included, 518 patients finished the follow-up, with an average time of 36.8 months. The total complete clinical response rate of IIMs was 50.0% (259/518). The complete clinical response rate of dermatomyositis (DM), anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) were 53.5%, 48.9% and 39.0%, respectively. Fever (P=0.002) and rapid progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) (P=0.014) were observed much more frequently in non-complete clinical response group than in complete clinical response group. The aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reaction protein (CRP) and serum ferritin were significantly higher in non-complete clinical response group as compared with complete clinical response group. As for the treatment, the percentage of glucocorticoid received and intravenous immunoglobin (IVIG) were significantly higher in non-complete clinical response group than in complete clinical response group. Risk factor analysis showed that IMNM subtype (P=0.007), interstitial lung disease (ILD) (P=0.001), eleva-ted AST (P=0.012), elevated serum ferritin (P=0.016) and decreased count of CD4+T cells in peripheral blood (P=0.004) might be the risk factors for IIMs non-complete clinical response. Conclusion: The total complete clinical response rate of IIMs is low, especially for IMNM subtype. More effective intervention should be administered to patients with ILD, elevated AST, elevated serum ferritin or decreased count of CD4+T cells at disease onset.

    Comparison of the early analgesic efficacy of three different drugs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
    Jiangjing WANG,Shunyi WEI,Yingfang AO,Yuping YANG
    2024, (2):  293-298.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.014    
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    Objective: The pain-relieving effect and safety of compound aminopyrine phenacetin tablets, tramcontin (tramadol hydrochloride sustained-release tablets) and dolantin in the early stage of autologous tendon reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint were compared. Methods: Retrospective analysis of postoperative pain and drug analgesia in 45 patients performed by the same group from November 2018 to February 2019. The random area group design was divided into two groups according to whether ACL rupture was combined with meniscal injury, group A was 24 patients with ACL reconstruction of knee joint and group B was 21 patients with ACL fracture combined with meniscus injury. The two groups were divided into three subgroups respectively according to the actual treatment of postoperative analgesic drugs received by the patients, including 4 cases of compound aminopyrine phenacetin tablets, 11 cases of oral tramcontin, 9 cases of intramuscular dolantin combined with phenergan in group A; 3 cases of compound aminopyrine phenacetin tablets, 10 cases of oral tramcontin, and 8 cases of intramuscular dolantin combined with phenergan in group B. When the early postoperative patients complain about pain and actively ask for analgesia. When the patients complained about pain after the operation and actively asked for analgesia, they were randomly given painkillers, tramcontin or dolantin combined with phenergan to relieve pain. Pain visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain relief and observe the occurrence of adverse reactions. Results: There were no significant dif-ferences in gender, age, body mass index, and time of hospital stay between the two groups of patients (P > 0.05). In the patients who used tramcontin and dolantin combined with phenergan to relieve pain judging by VAS score before and 1 h after taking the drug, it was found that the pain situation of the patient was significantly relieved, and the difference before and after taking the drug had statistical significance (P < 0.05). Pairwise comparisons of the three drugs applied in the two groups showed significantly greater pain relief in the dolantin combined with phenergan group than in the remaining two drugs. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Dolantin was prone to nausea and vomiting, but the application of phenergan was also used to reduce side effects. In terms of adverse reactions, only 1 case of nausea occurred in the tramcontin group for simple ACL reconstruction, and none of the patients in the other groups showed serious complications and allergic reactions. Conclusion: Whether in cruciate ligament reconstruction alone or combined with meniscus molding or suture, compound aminopyrine phenacetin tablets, tramcontin, dolantin combined with phenergan can effectively relieve pain. Among the three drugs, dolantin caused the largest pain relief. At the same time, the combination of phenergan effectively reduced the adverse reactions, such as vomiting and nausea, and increased the drug safety.

    Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis for end-stage ankle and hindfoot arthropathy: Short- and mid-term clinical outcomes
    Wenjing LI,Baozhou ZHANG,Heng LI,Liangpeng LAI,Hui DU,Ning SUN,Xiaofeng GONG,Ying LI,Yan WANG,Yong WU
    2024, (2):  299-306.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.015    
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    Objective: To analyze the clinical data of patients with end-stage ankle and hindfoot arthropathy who underwent tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis by the same surgeon, explore the short- and mid-term clinical results, complications and functional improvement, and discuss the clinical prognosis and precautions of TTC arthrodesis. Methods: Retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 40 patients who underwent TTC arthrodesis by the same surgeon from March 2011 to December 2020. In this study, 23 males and 17 females were included, with an average age of (49.1±16.0) years. All the patients underwent unilateral surgery. The clinical characteristics, imaging manifestations, main diagnosis and specific surgical techniques of the patients were recorded. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by comparison of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score and visual analogue scale (VAS) between pre-operation and at the last follow-up. The fusion healing time, symptom improvement (significant improvement, certain improvement, no improvement or deterioration) and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results: The median follow-up time was 38.0 (26.3, 58.8) months. The preoperative VAS score was 6.0 (4.0, 7.0), and the AOFAS score was 33.0 (25.3, 47.3). At the last follow-up, the median VAS score was 0 (0, 3.0), and the AOFAS score was 80.0 (59.0, 84.0). All the significantly improved compared with their preoperative corresponding values (P < 0.05). There was no wound necrosis or infection in the patients. One patient suffered from subtalar joint nonunion, which was syphilitic Charcot arthropathy. The median bony healing time of other patients was 15.0 (12.0, 20.0) weeks. Among the included patients, there were 25 cases with significant improvement in symptom compared with that preoperative, 8 cases with certain improvement, 4 cases with no improvement, and 3 cases with worse symptoms than that before operation. Conclusion: TTC arthrodesis is a reliable method for the treatment of the end-stage ankle and hindfoot arthropathy. The function of most patients was improved postoperatively, with little impact on daily life. The causes of poor prognosis included toe stiffness, stress concentration in adjacent knee joints, nonunion and pain of unknown causes.

    Risk factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock
    Xiaoqian SI,Xiujuan ZHAO,Fengxue ZHU,Tianbing WANG
    2024, (2):  307-312.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.016    
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    Objective: To investigate the risk factors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 314 patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock at Trauma Medicine Center, Peking University People's Hospital from December 2012 to August 2021, including 152 male patients and 162 female patients, with a median age of 63.00 (49.75-82.00) years. The demographic data, past medical history, injury assessment, vital signs, laboratory examination and other indicators of these patients during hospitalization were recorded. These patients were divided into two groups, ARDS group (n=89) and non-ARDS group (n=225) according to whether there was ARDS within 7 d of admission. Risk factors for ARDS were identified using Logistic regression. The C-statistic expressed as a percentage [area under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve] was used to assess the discrimination of the model. Results: The incidence of ARDS after traumatic hemorrhagic shock was 28.34%. Finally, Logistic regression model showed that the independent risk factors of ARDS after traumatic hemorrhagic shock included male, history of coronary heart disease, high acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score, road traffic accident and elevated troponin Ⅰ. The OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 4.01 (95%CI: 1.75-9.20), 5.22 (95%CI: 1.29-21.08), 1.07 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57), 2.53 (95%CI: 1.21-5.28), and 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57), respectively; the P values were 0.001, 0.020, 0.009, 0.014, and 0.034, respectively. The ROC curve was used to analyze the value of each risk factor in predicting ARDS. It was found that the AUC for predicting ARDS after traumatic hemorrhagic shock was 0.59 (95%CI: 0.51-0.68) for male, 0.55 (95%CI: 0.46-0.64) for history of coronary heart disease, 0.65 (95%CI: 0.57-0.73) for APACHE Ⅱ score, 0.58 (95%CI: 0.50-0.67) for road traffic accident, and 0.73 (95%CI: 0.66-0.80) for elevated troponin Ⅰ, with an overall predictive value of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.74-0.88). Conclusion: The incidence of ARDS in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock is high, and male, history of coronary heart disease, high APACHE Ⅱ score, road traffic accident and elevated troponin Ⅰ are independent risk factors for ARDS after traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Timely monitoring these indicators is conducive to early detection and treatment of ARDS after traumatic hemorrhagic shock.

    Medical emergency support for the snowboarding project during the Beijing Winter Olympics
    Yong MA,Chang DU,Wei GUO,Jihong ZHU,Fengxue ZHU,Yu DANG,Peng GUO
    2024, (2):  313-317.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.017    
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    Objective: To analyze and summarize the medical security situation of the snowmobile, sled, and steel frame snowmobile tracks at the National Sliding Centre, and to provide experience for future event hosting and medical security work for mass ice and snow sports. Methods: Retrospective analysis of injuries and treatment of athletes participating in the International Training Week and World Cup for Ski, Sled, and Steel Frame Ski from October to November 2021(hereinafter referred to as "International Training Week"), as well as the Ski, Sled, and Steel Frame Ski events at the Beijing Winter Olympics in February 2022 (hereinafter referred to as the "Beijing Winter Olympics"). We referred to and drew on the "Medical Security Standards for Winter Snow Sports" to develop specific classification standards for analyzing injured areas, types of injuries, and accident locations. Results: A total of 743 athletes participated in the International Training Week and the Beijing Winter Olympics. During the competition, there were 58 incidents of overturning, prying, and collision, of which 28 (28 athletes) were injured, accounting for 48.3% of the total accidents and 3.8% of the total number of athletes. Among them, there were 9 males (32.1%) and 19 females (67.9%), with an average age of (26.3 ± 4.7) years. Among the 28 injured athletes, 20 cases (71.4%) received on-site treatment for Class Ⅰ injuries, while 8 cases (28.6%) had more severe injuries, including Class Ⅱ injuries (7 cases) and Class Ⅲ injuries (1 case), which were referred to designated hospitals for further treatment. Among the 28 injured athletes, 3 cases (10.7%) experienced multiple injuries, including 2 cases of 2 injuries and 1 case of 3 injuries. The most common injuries were in the ankle and toes (10/32, 31.3%). Out of 28 injured athletes, one (3.6%) experienced two types of injuries simultaneously, with joint and/or ligament injuries being the most common (11/29, 37.9%). The most accident prone point on the track was the ninth curve (18/58, 31.0%). Conclusion: Through the analysis and summary of medical security work, it can provide better experience and reference for the future development of snowmobile, sled, and steel frame snowmobile sports in China, making the National Snowy and Ski Center truly a sustainable Olympic heritage.

    Application of microchannel technique in minimally invasive resection of cervical intraspinal tumors
    Guozhong LIN,Changcheng MA,Chao WU,Yu SI,Jun YANG
    2024, (2):  318-321.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.018    
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    Objective: To explore the application and key points of microchannel approaches in resection of cervical intraspinal tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 51 cases of cervical spinal canal tumors from February 2017 to March 2020. Among them, 5 cases were located epidural space, 6 cases were located epidural and subdural space, and 40 cases were located under the subdural extramedullary space(6 cases were located on the ventral side of the spinal cord). The maximum diameter ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. The clinical manifestations included neck, shoulder or upper limb pain 43 cases, sensory disturbance (numbness) in 22 cases, and limb weakness in 8 cases. The microchannel keyhole technique was used to expose the tumor, and the tumor was resected microscopically. Results: In this study, 35 patients underwent hemilaminectomy, 12 patients underwent interlaminar fenestration, 2 patients underwent medial 1/4 facetectomy on the basis of hemilaminectomy or interlaminar fenestration. Two tumors were resected through anatomy space (no bone was resected). The degree of tumor resection included total resection in 50 cases and subtotal resection in 1 case. The type of the tumor included 36 schwannomas, 12 meningiomas, 2 enterogenic cysts and 1 dermoid cyst. There was no infection and cerebrospinal fluid leakage postoperatively. Limb numbness occurred in 7 patients. The average follow-up time was 15 months (3 to 36 months). No deformity such as cervical instability or kyphosis was found. The tumor had no recurrence. Conclusion: The cervical spinal canal is relatively wide, cervical tumors with no more than three segments can be fully exposed by means of microchannel technology. Besides intramedullary or malignant tumors, they can be microsurgically removed. Preservation of the skeletal muscle structure of cervical spine is beneficial to recover the anatomy and function of cervical spine. The electrophysiological monitoring helps to avoid spinal cord or nerve root injury.

    Application of iliac vein molding and stent implantation through the ipsilateral great saphenous vein approach in daytime treatment mode
    Qichen FENG,Shuo GAI,Changming WANG,Xuan LI
    2024, (2):  322-325.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.019    
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    Objective: To explore the feasibility and recent efficacy of iliac vein molding and stenting in daytime treatment mode in patients with iliac vein stenosis. Methods: Medical records of iliac vein molding and stenting performed in the ipsilateral great saphenous vein approach conducted from February 2017 to March 2022 were retrospective reviewed. There were 21 cases, 6 males and 15 females. Age ranged from 37 to 79 years [(62.5 ± 10.2) years]. The stenosis in the 21 limbs simply involved the common iliac veins in 16 patients, 2 patients had the simple and external iliac veins, and both the total and external iliac veins in 3 patients. Both iliac vein molding and iliac vein stenting were performed through the ipsilateral great saphenous vein approach. The patients with simple iliac vein stenosis with great saphenous vein valve insufficiency also underwent radiofrequency closure of great saphenous vein and flexural vein sclerosis therapy simultaneously. Regular postoperative direct oral anticoagulants therapy and stress therapy were followed. All the patients were hospitalized for less than 24 h. Results: All the 21 patients operations were successful (the success rate was 100%), without any intraoperative complications. Immediate postoperative complications were puncture point bleeding in 1 case. The bandage gauze was completely wet. The bleeding was stopped after 5min of recompression. All the patients were hospitalized for less than 24 h. Follow-up results: The 3-month follow-up rate after operation was 100%. Absolute effective 18 cases (18/21, 85.7%). Relatively effective(postmentation still after surgery, but with less extent) in 3 cases (3/21, 14.3%). The iliac vein stents were unobstructed, and the trunk of the great saphenous vein was well closed in the patients with great saphenous vein radiofrequency treatment. The 6-month follow-up rate after operation was 71.4%(15/21). Of these, 14 cases (14/15, 93.3%) were absolutely effective. Relatively effective(postmentation still after surgery, but with less extent) in 1 case (1/15, 6.7%). The iliac vein stents were no restenosis or obstruction, and the trunk of the great saphenous vein was well closed in the patients with great saphenous vein radiofrequency treatment. Conclusion: The interventional treatment technique of iliac vein stenosis is feasible in the daytime treatment mode, with clear advantages and satisfactory recent efficacy.

    Discussion on the surgical timing of rupture and hemorrhage of renal angiomyolipoma
    Kewei CHEN,Shaohui DENG,Zhuo LIU,Hongxian ZHANG,Lulin MA,Shudong ZHANG
    2024, (2):  326-331.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.020    
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    Objective: To investigate the effect of different surgical timing on the surgical treatment of renal angiomyolipoma (RAML) with rupture and hemorrhage. Methods: The demographic data and perioperative data of 31 patients with rupture and hemorrhage of RAML admitted to our medical center from June 2013 to February 2023 were collected. The surgery within 7 days after hemorrhage was defined as a short-term surgery group, the surgery between 7 days and 6 months after hemorrhage was defined as a medium-term surgery group, and the surgery beyond 6 months after hemorrhage was defined as a long-term surgery group. The perioperative related indicators among the three groups were compared. Results: This study collected 31 patients who underwent surgical treatment for RAML rupture and hemorrhage, of whom 13 were males and 18 were females, with an average age of (46.2±11.3) years. The short-term surgery group included 7 patients, the medium-term surgery group included 12 patients and the long-term surgery group included 12 patients. In terms of tumor diameter, the patients in the long-term surgery group were significantly lower than those in the recent surgery group [(6.6±2.4) cm vs. (10.0±3.0) cm, P=0.039]. In terms of operation time, the long-term surgery group was significantly shorter than the mid-term surgery group [(157.5±56.8) min vs. (254.8±80.1) min, P=0.006], and there was no significant difference between other groups. In terms of estimated blood loss during surgery, the long-term surgery group was significantly lower than the mid-term surgery group [35 (10, 100) mL vs. 650 (300, 1 200) mL, P < 0.001], and there was no significant difference between other groups. In terms of intraoperative blood transfusion, the long-term surgery group was significantly lower than the mid-term surgery group [0 (0, 0) mL vs. 200 (0, 700) mL, P=0.014], and there was no significant difference between other groups. In terms of postoperative hospitalization days, the long-term surgery group was significantly lower than the mid-term surgery group [5 (4, 7) d vs. 7 (6, 10) d, P=0.011], and there was no significant difference between other groups. Conclusion: We believe that for patients with RAML rupture and hemorrhage, reoperation for more than 6 months is a relatively safe time range, with minimal intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, it is more recommended to undergo surgical treatment after the hematoma is systematized through conservative treatment.

    Relationship between short-chain fatty acids in the gingival crevicular fluid and periodontitis of stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ
    Yuru HU,Juan LIU,Wenjing LI,Yibing ZHAO,Qiqiang LI,Ruifang LU,Huanxin MENG
    2024, (2):  332-337.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.021    
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    Objective: To analyze the concentration of formic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ periodontitis, and their relationship with periodontitis. Methods: The study enrolled 37 systemically healthy patients with periodontitis and 19 healthy controls who visited Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from February 2008 to May 2011. Their GCFs were collected from the mesial-buccal site of one molar or incisor in each quadrant. Periodontal clinical parameters, including plaque index(PLI), probing depth(PD), bleeding index(BI), and attachment loss(AL). Concentrations of formic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in the supernatant of the GCFs were analyzed by high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE). The prediction ability of formic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid with the risk of periodontitis and the differences between grade B and grade C periodontitis were analyzed. Results: In this study, 32 patients with stage Ⅲ and 5 patients with stage Ⅳ were enrolled, including 9 patients with grade B and 28 patients with grade C. Clinical periodontal variables in the patients with periodontitis were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.001). Formic acid was significantly lower in periodontitis than that in the control group [5.37 (3.39, 8.49) mmol/L vs. 12.29 (8.35, 16.57) mmol/L, P<0.001]. Propionic acid and butyric acid in periodontitis were significantly higher than those in the control group: Propionic acid, 10.23 (4.28, 14.90) mmol/L vs. 2.71 (0.00, 4.25) mmol/L, P < 0.001; butyric acid, 2.63 (0.47, 3.81) mmol/L vs. 0.00 (0.00, 0.24) mmol/L, P<0.001. There was no significant difference in formic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations between grade B and grade C periodontitis (P>0.05). Propionic acid and butyric acid in the deep pocket were significantly higher than in the shallow pocket, while the concentration of formic acid decreased with the increase of PD. Propionic acid (OR=1.51, 95%CI: 1.29-1.75) and butyric acid (OR=3.72, 95%CI: 1.93-7.17) were risk factors for periodontitis, while formic acid (OR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.81-0.93) might be a protective factor for periodontitis. Propionic acid (AUC=0.852, 95%CI: 0.805-0.900), butyric acid (AUC=0.889, 95%CI: 0.841-0.937), f (formic acid, AUC=0.844, 95%CI: 0.793-0.895) demonstrated a good predictive capacity for the risk of periodontitis. Conclusion: The concentration of formic acid decrease in the GCF of periodontitis patients, which is a protective factor for periodontitis, its reciprocal have good predictive capacity. However, propionic acid and butyric acid increase, which are risk factors for periodontitis and have good predictive capacity. The concentration of formic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid vary with probing depth, but there is no significant difference between grade B and grade C periodontitis.

    Preliminarily study of arthrocentesis combined with liquid phase concentrated growth factor injection in the treatment of unilateral temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis
    Hongguang LI,Weihua HAN,Xun WU,Jiling FENG,Gang LI,Juanhong MENG
    2024, (2):  338-344.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.022    
    Abstract ( 63 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (3166KB) ( 49 )   Save
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    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of arthrocentesis combined with liquid phase concentrated growth factor (CGF) injection in the treatment of unilateral temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA), in order to provide a new treatment option for TMJOA patients. Methods: In this non-randomized controlled study, patients diagnosed with unilateral TMJOA who visited the center for temporomandibular joint disorder and orofacial pain of Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from June 2021 to January 2023 were selected as research objects. The patients were divided into experimental group and control group, which were selected by patients themselves. The experimental group received arthrocentesis combined with liquid phase CGF injection and the control group received arthrocentesis combined with HA injection. Both groups were treated 3 times, once every two weeks. The clinical effect was evaluated by the maximum mouth opening, pain value and the degree of mandibular function limitation 6 months after treatment. The change of condylar bone was evaluated by cone beam CT (CBCT) image fusion technology before and after treatment. Results: A total of 20 patients were included in the experimental group, including 3 males and 17 females, with an average age of (34.40±8.41) years. A total of 15 patients were included in the control group, including 1 male and 14 females, with an average age of (32.20±12.00) years. There was no statistical difference in general information between the two groups (P > 0.05). There were no statistical differences in the mouth opening, pain value and the degree of jaw function limitation between the two groups before treatment (P > 0.05), and all of them improved 6 months after treatment compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). However, the mouth opening of experimental group was significantly higher than that of control group 6 months after treatment (P < 0.05), and the degree of jaw function limitation was significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.05). CBCT 2D images showed that the condylar bone of both groups was smoother after treatment than before treatment, and image fusion results showed that 10 patients (50.0%) in the experimental group and 5 patients (33.3%) in the control group had reparative remodeling area of condylar bone, and there was no statistical difference between them (P > 0.05). Except for one CGF patient, the other patients in both groups had some absorption areas of condylar bone. Conclusion: The arthrocentesis combined with liquid phase CGF injection can improve the clinical symptoms and signs of unilateral TMJOA patients in short term, and is better than HA in increasing mouth opening and improving jaw function. CBCT fusion images of both patient groups show some cases of condylar bone reparative remodeling and its relevance to treatment plans still requires further study.

    Effect of printing orientation on physical and mechanical properties of 3D printing prosthodontic base resin materials
    Xinxin ZHAN,Lulu CAO,Dong XIANG,Hao TANG,Dandan XIA,Hong LIN
    2024, (2):  345-351.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.023    
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    Objective: To analyze the influence of forming direction on the surface characteristics, elastic modulus, bending strength and fracture toughness of printed parts and the relationship between forming direction and force direction, and to provide scientific basis and guidance for the clinical application of oral denture base resin materials. Methods: The 3D printing technology was used to print denture base resin samples. The shape and size of the samples referred to the current standard for testing conventional denture base materials. The samples used for physical performance testing were cylindrical (with a diameter of 15 mm and a thickness of 1 mm) and printed at different angles along the Z axis (0°, 45°, 90°). Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microscopic topography of the different samples. The color stability of different samples was observed by color stabilizer. The surface roughness of the samples was analyzed by using surface roughness tester. The Vickers hardness was measured to analyze the hardness of the samples. The samples used for mechanical performance testing were rectangular (elastic modulus and bending strength: A length of 64 mm, a width of 10 mm, and a height of 3.3 mm; fracture toughness: A length of 39 mm, a width of 8 mm, and a height of 4 mm), divided into two groups: W group and H group. The W group was printed from the bottom up along the Z axis with the length × width as the bottom surface parallel to the X, Y axis plane, while the H group printed from the bottom up along the Z axis with the length × height as the bottom surface parallel to the X, Y axis plane. The forming angles of both groups were equally divided into 0°, 45°, and 90°. The elastic modulus, bending strength and fracture toughness of different samples were studied through universal mechanical testing machine. SPSS 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The microscopic topography and roughness of different samples were closely related to the printing direction, with significant differences between the 0°, 45°, and 90° specimens. The 0° specimens had the smoothest surface (roughness < 1 μm). The surface of the 45° specimen was the roughest (roughness>3 μm). The microhardness of the 0° sample was the best [(196.13±0.20) MPa], with a significant difference compared with the 90° sample [(186.62±4.81) MPa, P < 0.05]. The mechanical properties of different samples were also closely related to the printing direction. The elastic modulus, bending strength, and fracture toughness of the 45° samples in the W group were the highest compared with the other groups. The results of elastic modulus showed that in the H group, the 45° specimens had the highest elastic mo-dulus, which was significantly different from the 0° and 90° specimens (P < 0.05). The elastic modulus of 0° and 45° specimens in the W group were higher than those in 90° specimens (P < 0.05). The bending strength results showed that there was no significant difference between the specimens from dif-ferent angles in the H group. The bending strength of the 90° specimens in the W group was the smallest, and there was a significant difference between 90° and the 0° and 45° specimens (P < 0.05); And the bendind strength of the 0° and 45° specimens in the W group was significantly higher than that of the 0° and 45° specimens in the H group (P < 0.05). The fracture toughness results showed that the fracture toughness of the H group specimens was lower than 1.9 MPa m1/2, which was specified in the denture base standard. The 45° samples in the W group were the highest, with significant differences compared with the 0° and 90° samples (P < 0.05). And the 90° samples of the W group specimens were lower than 1.9 MPa m1/2. And the fracture toughness of the 45° specimen in the W group was significantly higher than that of all the specimens in the H group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The 0° samples had relatively better physical properties. The 45° samples had the best mechanical properties. But the fracture toughness of specimens (H group and 90° samples of W group) did not yet meet clinical requirements. That indicated that the characteristics of the 3D printing denture base resin were affected by the printing direction. Only when the performance of the printed samples in all directions met the minimum requirements of the standard, they could be used in clinical practice.

    Molecular biology analysis of 2 rare RhD variant individuals with RHD*DEL37
    Peng WANG,Ziyao YANG,Meng WANG,Wei WANG,Aizhi LI
    2024, (2):  352-356.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.024    
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    The Rh blood grouping system is a critical standardized test in transfusion medicine, especially for the cases related to haemolytic transfusion reactions and neonatal haemolytic disease caused by clinical RhD blood group incompatibility. In the present case report, we presented two cases with the uncommon RHD gene variation RHD*DEL37. The blood samples of the two subjects were mistakenly identified as RhD-negative through conventional serological testing. Firstly, both blood samples were tested negative for the RhD antigen using traditional tube test and gel microcolumn methods. The phenotyping of RhCE were identified as ccEe and ccee for each sample, respectively. Secondly, genetic analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific prime (PCR-SSP) which revealed that neither sample belonging to the several common RHD gene variants which was found in Asia. Moreover, they turned out to be positive for the RHD haplotype, which indicated that exons 1-10 on one of the RHD alleles were entirely absent. In addition, a T>C mutation was observed at bases 1154-31 in intron 8 of the other allele, which was located at the intron 8 breakpoint. This result was obtained after further Sanger sequencing of exons 1-10 of the RHD gene. The mutant allele was designated as RHD*DEL37 by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) and was identified as D-elute(Del) by phenotype ana-lysis. Both samples were genotyped as RHD*DEL37 and showed positive results. In summary, the true genotype of the two blood samples, of which the screening results only using serological testing method was negative, were RHD*DEL37 /RHD-(RHD*01N.01). Notably, this kind of genotype was reported for the first time in Chinese population. Moreover, the two individuals did not have ties of consanguinity, indicating that some of the Chinese individuals could be carriers of the genetic mutation. Therefore, it might be necessary to further confirm the frequency of this mutation in the Chinese population and the possibility of homozygosity for this mutation. This report identifies infrequent RHD gene mutation samples by coupling molecular biology and serological methods to prevent misclassification of blood groups. Combining serological and molecular biology test results to determine blood group is critical in protecting patients during clinical transfusion procedures.

    Afferent baroreflex failure with hyponatremia: A case report
    Shengjia PENG,Yu QI,Lijie SUN,Dan LI,Xinyu WANG,Jiangli HAN,Baoxia CHEN,Yuan ZHANG
    2024, (2):  357-361.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.025    
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    Afferent baroreflex failure (ABF) is a rare disease. It refers to the clinical syndrome caused by the impairment of the afferent limb of the baroreflex or its central connections at the level of the medulla. The recognized causes include trauma, surgery in related areas (radical neck tumor surgery, carotid endarterectomy), neck radiotherapy, brain stem stroke, tumor growth paraganglioma and hereditary diseases, among which the most common cause is extensive neck surgery or radiotherapy for neck cancer. The main manifestations are fluctuating hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, paroxysmal tachycardia and bradycardia. This case is a young man, whose main feature is blood pressure fluctuation, accom-panied by neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH). After examination, the common causes of hypertension and nOH were ruled out. Combined with the previous neck radiotherapy and neck lymph node dissection, it was considered that the blood pressure regulation was abnormal due to the damage of carotid sinus baroreceptor after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and neck lymph node dissection, which was called ABF. At the same time, the patient was complicated with chronic hyponatremia. Combined with clinical and laboratory examination, the final consideration was caused by syndrome of in- appropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Baroreceptors controlled the secretion of heart rate, blood pressure and antidiuretic hormone through the mandatory "inhibition" signal. We speculate that the carotid sinus baroreceptor was damaged after neck radiotherapy and surgery, which leads to abnormal blood pressure regulation and nOH, while the function of inhibiting ADH secretion was weakened, resulting in higher ADH than normal level and mild hyponatremia. The goal of treating ABF patients was to reduce the frequency and amplitude of sudden changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and to alleviate the onset of symptomatic hypotension. At present, drug treatment is still controversial, and non-drug treatment may alleviate some patients' symptoms, but long-term effective treatment still needs further study. The incidence of ABF is not high, but it may lead to serious cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, and the mechanism involved is extremely complicated, and there are few related studies. The reports of relevant medical records warn that patients undergoing neck radiotherapy or surgery should minimize the da-mage to the baroreceptor in the carotid sinus in order to reduce the adverse prognosis caused by complications.

    A case of COVID-19 associated ischemic colitis
    Xin LIU,Xueying SHI,Jun LI
    2024, (2):  362-365.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.026    
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    Ischemic colitis is a disease in which local tissue in the intestinal wall dies to varying degrees due to insufficient blood supply to the colon. Risk factors include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, etc. Typical clinical manifestations of the disease are abdominal pain and hematochezia. The most common locations are the watershed areas of splenic flexure and rectosigmoid junction. The lesions are segmental and clearly demarcated from normal mucosa under endoscopy. The digestive tract is a common extra-pulmonary organ affected by the novel coronavirus, which can be directly damaged by the virus or indirectly caused by virus-mediated inflammation and hypercoagulability. The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated intestinal injury can be characterized by malabsorption, malnutrition, intestinal flora shift, etc. CT can show intestinal ischemia, intestinal wall thickening, intestinal wall cystoid gas, intestinal obstruction, ascites, intussusception and other signs. In this study, we reported a case of ischemic colitis in a moderate COVID-19 patient. The affected area was atypical and the endoscope showed diffuse lesions from the cecum to the rectosigmoid junction. No signs of intestinal ischemia were found on imaging and clear thrombosis in small interstitial vessels was found in pathological tissue. Combined with the fact that the patient had no special risk factors in his past history, the laboratory tests indicated elevated ferritin and D-dimer, while the autoantibodies and fecal etiology results were negative, we speculated that the hypercoagulability caused by novel coronavirus infection was involved in the occurrence and development of the disease in this patient. After prolonged infusion support and prophylactic anti-infection therapy, the patient slowly resumed diet and eventually went into remission. Finally, we hoped to attract clinical attention with the help of this case of moderate COVID-19 complicated with ischemic colitis which had a wide range of lesions and a slow reco-very. For patients with abdominal pain and blood in the stool after being diagnosed as COVID-19, even if they are not severe COVID-19, they should be alert to the possibility of ischemic colitis, so as not to be mistaken for gastrointestinal reactions related to COVID-19.

    Left mandibular osteonecrosis following herpes zoster of the third branch of left trigeminal nerve: A case report
    Ying ZHOU,Ning ZHAO,Hongyuan HUANG,Qingxiang LI,Chuanbin GUO,Yuxing GUO
    2024, (2):  366-370.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.027    
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    Herpes zoster of trigeminal nerve was a common skin disease caused by varicella-zoster virus infection. Simple involvement of the third branch of trigeminal nerve was rare, and so were oral complications such as pulpitis, periodontitis, spontaneous tooth loss, bone necrosis, etc. This article presented a case of herpes zoster on the third branch of the left trigeminal nerve complicated with left mandibular osteonecrosis. We reported the case of a 64-year-old man with sudden pain in the left half of the tongue 1 month ago, and then herpes on the left facial skin appeared following with acute pain.The local hospital diagnosed it as herpes zoster and treated it with external medication. A few days later, he developed gum pain in the left mandibular posterior tooth area. He was admitted to Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology one week ago with loose and dislodged left posterior tooth accompanied by left mandibular bone surface exposure. Clinical examination showed bilateral symmetry and no obvious restriction of mouth opening. Visible herpes zoster pigmentation and scarring on the left side of the face appeared. The left mandibular posterior tooth was missing, the exposed bone surface was about 1.5 cm×0.8 cm, and the surrounding gingiva was red and swollen, painful under pressure, with no discharge of pus. The remaining teeth in the mouth were all Ⅲ degree loosened. Imageological examination showed irregular low-density destruction of the left mandible bone, unclear boundary, and severe resorption of alveolar bone. The patient was diagnosed as left mandibular osteonecrosis. Under general anesthesia, left mandibular lesion exploration and curettage + left mandibular partial resection + adjacent flap transfer repair were performed. The patient was re-exmained 6 months after surgery, there was no redness, swelling or other abnormality in the gums and the herpes pigmentation on the left face was significantly reduced. Unfortunately, the patient had complications of postherpetic neuralgia. This case indicate that clinicians should improve their awareness of jaw necrosis, a serious oral complication of trigeminal zoster, and provide early treatment. After the inflammation was initially controlled, surgical treatment could be considered to remove the necrotic bone, curettage the inflammatory granulation tissue, and extraction of the focal teeth to avoid further deterioration of the disease.

    Vertebral fractures combined with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time: A case report
    Xinzhu BAI,Jinhui HE,Songsong LU,Chun LI,Yilin WANG,Jian XIONG
    2024, (2):  371-374.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2024.02.028    
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    With the development of modern medical standards, autoimmune diseases and their associated successive osteoporosis have received increasing attention in recent years. Patients with autoimmune diseases, due to the characteristics of the disease and the prolonged use of glucocorticoid hormone therapy, may affect the bone formation and bone absorption of the patient, followed by severe successive osteoporosis, thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Vertebral compression fractures of the spine are common fracture types in patients with osteoporotic fractures. Osteoporosis is a common complication after glucocorticoid therapy in patients with autoimmune diseases. Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) are minimally invasive operation and are commonly used surgical methods for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, due to the operation of spinal puncture during the operation, there are serious surgical risks such as bone cement leakage, spinal epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage in both PVP and PKP. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate the patient' s body before surgery carefully, especially in the case of blood coagulation. This article reports a case of autoimmune disease patient admitted to Peking University People' s Hospital due to lumbar 4 vertebral compression fracture combined with Sjögren' s syndrome. The patient' s preoperative examination showed that the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was significantly prolonged. After completing the APTT extended screening experiment and lupus anticoagulant factor testing, the multi-disciplinary team (MDT) of Peking University People' s Hospital jointly discussed the conclusion that the patient' s test results were caused by an abnormal self-immunity anti-copulant lupus (LAC). Based on the results of the laboratory examination, the patient was considered to be diagnosed with combined antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). For such patients, compared with the patient' s tendency to bleed, we should pay more attention to the risk of high blood clotting in the lower limbs of the patient, pulmonary clots and so on. With timely anti-coagulation treatment, the patient safely passed the peripheral period and was successfully discharged from the hospital. Therefore, for patients with autoimmune diseases with prolonged APTT in the perioperative period, doctors need to carefully identify the actual cause and carry out targeted treatment in order to minimize the risk of surgical and perioperative complications and bring satisfactory treatment results to the patients.


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Sponsor: Peking University
Editor-in-Chief: ZHAN Qi-min
Executive Editor-in-Chief: ZENG Gui-fang
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Department of Journal of Peking University (Health Sciences)
ISSN: 1671-167X
CN: 11-4691/R