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18 August 2022, Volume 54 Issue 4
  • Effects of 4′-O-methylochnaflavone on endothelial dysfunction induced by palmitic acid in rat cavernous endothelial cells
    Yang-yang GU,Xiao-hui TAN,Wen-peng SONG,Dong FANG,Wei-dong SONG,Yi-ming YUAN,Ning-han FENG,Rui-li GUAN
    2022, (4):  599-604.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.004    
    Abstract ( 76 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (1950KB) ( 38 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the effect of biflavonoid 4′-O-methylochnaflavone (MF) on palmitic acid-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat cavernous endothelial cells (RCECs). Methods: The isolated RCECs were commercially available and randomly divided into four groups: normal+BSA group (NC group), palmitic acid (PA) group, MF group, and icariside Ⅱ (ICA Ⅱ) group. The protein expression levels of protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in each group were evaluated via Western blotting. The differences in the intracellular nitric oxide of RCECs treated by MF or ICA Ⅱ were detected by DAF-FM DA that served as a nitric oxide fluorescent probe. Effects of MF and ICA Ⅱ on cell proliferation of PA-stimulated RCECs were determined via CCK-8 assay. Results: The content of nitric oxide in RCECs was significantly increased after the treatment of MF and ICA Ⅱ in comparison with the NC group (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with ICA Ⅱ group, MF demonstrated a more obvious effect in promoting nitric oxide production (P < 0.05). Compared with the NC group, the expression levels of eNOS and AKT in the PA group were significantly decreased, indicating that a model for simulating the high-fat environment in vitro was successfully constructed (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the intervention of MF and ICA Ⅱ could effectively increase the expression of eNOS and AKT, suggesting that MF and ICA Ⅱ could promote the recovery of endothelial dysfunction caused by high levels of free fatty acids (P < 0.05). The results of CCK-8 assays showed that PA could significantly reduce the proli-feration ability of RCECs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the decreased cell viability induced by PA was significantly elevated by treatment with ICA Ⅱ and MF (P < 0.05). Conclusion: In RCECs, MF and ICA Ⅱ could effectively increase the content of nitric oxide. The down-regulation of the expression of proteins associated with the AKT/eNOS pathway after PA treatment revealed that this pathway was involved in the development of endothelial dysfunction, which could be effectively reversed by MF and ICA Ⅱ. In addition, the cell proliferation ability was significantly decreased following PA treatment, but MF and ICA Ⅱ could restore the above changes. Overall, biflavonoid MF has an obvious repairing effect on PA-stimulated endothelial dysfunction.

    Correlation between adipokine and clinicopathological features and prognosis in upper tract urothelial carcinoma
    Xiang DAI,Fei WANG,Yi-qing DU,Yu-xuan SONG,Tao XU
    2022, (4):  605-614.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.005    
    Abstract ( 70 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (4060KB) ( 29 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the correlation between expression levels of adipokine and clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) based on immunohistochemical staining and bioinformatics analysis. Methods: The 8 adipokines in this study included adiponectin (AdipoQ), leptin (LEP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and their receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, LEPR, IL-6R, IL-10RA, IL-10RB). Tissue samples of patients with UTUC who underwent surgical treatment in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2014 to April 2021 were selected for immunohistochemical staining. Their quantitative gene expression data were calculated by H-Score, and relevant clinical and follow-up data were collected retrospectively. Transcription group sequencing data of UTUC patients in Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE134292 dataset) were downloaded for comparison. Chi-square test or t-test was used to compare the expression level of adipokine between non-muscle invasive group and muscle invasive group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curve were utilized to analyze independent predictors of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), intravesical recurrence-free survival (IVRFS) in the both cohorts. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the study, 63 tissue samples of the patients with UTUC who underwent surgical treatment in Peking University People's Hospital and 57 UTUC patients in GSE134292 dataset were selected. In immunohistochemical cohort, the expressions of AdipoQ (P=0.003 6), AdipoR1 (P=0.006 5), LEP (P=0.007 7), IL-10 (P=0.006 9), and IL-10RA (P=0.008 9) were statistically higher in muscle invasive group. In GSE134292 cohort, the expressions of AdipoR1 (P=0.000 4), AdipoR2 (P=0.000 4), IL-6 (P=0.005 0), IL-10 (P=0.001 7), and IL-10RA (P=0.008 1) were statistically higher in muscle invasive group. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high IL-10RA expression was an independent predictive factor of IVRFS (P=0.044, HR=0.996, 95%CI: 0.992-0.998) in immunohistochemical cohort, which was confirmed in GSE134292 cohort (P=0.014, HR=0.515, 95%CI: 0.304-0.873). Conclusion: The expression levels of AdipoQ, AdipoR1, IL-10, and IL-10RA were correlated with tumor stage, suggesting that these adipokines played important roles in tumor progression. IL-10RA was an independent predictor of IVRFS, suggesting that IL-10 and its receptor played a critical role in tumor recurrence.

    Clinicopathological features and prognostic analysis of papillary renal cell carcinoma
    Er-shu BO,Peng HONG,Yu ZHANG,Shao-hui DENG,Li-yuan GE,Min LU,Nan LI,Lu-lin MA,Shu-dong ZHANG
    2022, (4):  615-620.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.006    
    Abstract ( 130 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1012KB) ( 34 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features and prognostic characteristics of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). Methods: The clinical data of 114 patients with pRCC, including 91 males and 23 females, admitted to the Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital from May 2012 to May 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases were operated patients with clear pathological diagnosis and complete follow-up data. The log-rank test was used to analyze the relationship between the patients' clinicopathological characteristics and survival time, the Kaplan-Meier method to draw survival curves, and the Cox regression model for univariate and multifactorial analysis. Results: The mean age of the 114 patients was (57.3±12.6) years. The tumors were located in the left kidney in 49 cases and in the right kidney in 65 cases. In the study, 48 radical nephrectomies and 66 partial nephrectomies were performed, 42 cases were type 1 and 72 cases were type 2, and the mean maximum tumor diameter was (5.5±3.6) cm. pT1a stage 52 cases, pT1b stage 22 cases, pT2 stage 4 cases, pT3 stage 33 cases, and pT4 stage 3 cases were staged. According to the World Health Organization / International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP), there were 13 cases of gradeⅠ, 44 cases of grade Ⅱ, 51 cases of grade Ⅲ, and 6 cases of grade Ⅳ. And 34 of the 114 patients had vascular cancer embolism, 30 cases had lymph node metastasis, and 3 cases had adrenal metastasis. The median follow-up time after surgery was 22 months, and the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 95.6%. The patients with type 1 and type 2 pRCC showed statistically significant differences in age (P=0.046), body mass index (P=0.008), surgical approach (P=0.001), maximum tumor diameter (P < 0.001), vascular cancer embolism (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), pT stage (P < 0.001), and nuclear grade (P < 0.001). The 3-year progression-free survival rates for type 1 and type 2 pRCC were 100% and 69.4%, respectively, with type 1 having a significantly better prognosis than with type 2 (P=0.003). Univariate analysis of the patients with type 2 pRCC showed that pT stage (P < 0.001), vascular cancer embolism (P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) were strongly associated with their prognosis. Multifactorial analysis showed that vascular cancer embolism was an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in type 2 pRCC (P=0.001). Univariate analysis of the pRCC patients undergoing radical nephrectomy showed that pT stage (P=0.006), vascular cancer embolism (P=0.001), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.008) were significant factors affecting their prognosis, and further multifactorial analysis showed that only vascular cancer embolism was an indepen-dent prognostic factor for their progression-free survival (P=0.006). Conclusion: Type 2 pRCC has more morbidity, more lymph node metastases, more advanced pT stage, and higher pathologic grading than type 1 pRCC. The presence of vascular cancer embolism is an independent prognostic factor in patients with type 2 pRCC and pRCC undergoing radical nephrectomy.

    Correlation between daily fluid intake behavioral habits and pathological characteristics of upper tract urothelial carcinoma
    Zhi-hua LI,Chun-ru XU,Yin LIU,Hua GUAN,Meng ZHANG,Xin-yan CHE,Qi TANG,Yan-bo HUANG,Xue-song LI,Li-qun HOU
    2022, (4):  621-627.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.007    
    Abstract ( 78 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (669KB) ( 20 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the correlation between drinking habits and pathological characteristics of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods: A preoperative questionnaire survey was conducted to understand the drinking habits of UTUC patients who were admitted to the Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital for radical nephroureterectomy within one year from August 2020 to July 2021, and statistical analysis was performed in combination with their postoperative pathological characteristics. The statistical procedure was performed using SPSS 22.0 software, and firstly, the preliminary analysis was performed one by one using the columnar χ2 test on the pathological characteristics of UTUC tumors as the dependent variable and the factors related to patients' general information, past history and drinking habits as the independent variables, and the independent variables that met P < 0.2 between the case and control groups for each dependent variable were specified for screening. The screened variables were included in the binary Logistic regression analysis. A difference of P < 0.05 was used to indicate a statistically significant difference. Results: A total of 239 patients, 134 males and 105 females, with a mean age of (68.1±9.98)years and a median disease duration of 4.8 months, were included in this study. Multifactorial Logistic regression results suggested that after adjusting for the effects of other variables, UTUC patients who had the habit of drinking at least once every hour during the daytime had a significantly increased risk of high grade (G3) tumors(OR=1.941, 95%CI: 0.352-1.029, P < 0.01); these patients also had a significantly decreased risk of multifocal UTUC tumors (OR=0.344, 95% CI: 1.18-5.582, P=0.004). The patients who had the habit of drinking over 100 mL water each time had a significantly decreased risk of mutifocal UTUC incidence (OR=0.477, 95%CI: 0.225-1.012, P=0.046). Patients who pay attention to daily water intakes had a significantly increased risk of renipelvic carcinoma (OR=2.530, 95%CI: 1.434-4.463, P=0.001) and a significantly decreased risk of ureteral carcinoma (OR=0.314, 95%CI: 0.172-0.573, P < 0.01). Other variables included in the regression model did not differ significantly in their effects on the occurrence of tumor pathological characteristics. Conclusion: Having the awareness of drinking water every 1 h during the day, drinking over 100 mL water each time, having the awareness of daily drinking habits correlated significantly with pathological characteristics of UTUC such as the presence of G3 tumor, multifocal tumors and location of the tumor. This conclusion still needs to be verified by subsequent trials with higher levels of evidence.

    Expression and significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
    Tian-yu CAI,Zhen-peng ZHU,Chun-ru XU,Xing JI,Tong-de LV,Zhen-ke GUO,Jian LIN
    2022, (4):  628-635.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.008    
    Abstract ( 73 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5414KB) ( 30 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC; or kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, KIRC), to analyze the relationship between the expression of FGFR2 and the clinical pathological features and prognosis of ccRCC, to study the relationship between the expression of FGFR2 and other molecules, and to explore its role in the development of ccRCC. Methods: Gene expressional and clinical information of ccRCC patients were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO) database. Next, the data were transformed and collated. In the study, 104 clinical ccRCC samples and corresponding paracancerous normal tissue samples were collected from Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed and the staining results were scored, so as to compare the expression of FGFR2 in ccRCC and paracancerous normal tissues. Besides, quantify real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression level of FGFR2 in normal renal epithelial cell lines (293) and ccRCC cell lines (786-O, 769-P, OSRC-2, Caki-1, ACHN, and A498). In addition, the relationship between FGFR2 expression and clinical pathological characteristics (including TNM staging and pathological grading) and survival prognosis in ccRCC patients was further analyzed. Furthermore, the relationship between FGFR2 expression and B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and neutrophil infiltration in the ccRCC patients was analyzed, and the Biological General Repository for Interactionh Datasets (BioGRID) was used to builds protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to study molecules that interacted with the FGFR2 protein. Results: In the TCGA database, the expression of FGFR2 was down-regulated in ccRCC tissue samples compared with normal tissue samples, and the expression in the GEO database also showed this differences. Furthermore, FGFR2 expression was downregulated in ccRCC clinical samples and ccRCC cell lines, compared with corresponding paracancerous normal tissue or normal renal epithelial cell lines. In addition, FGFR2 high expression was associated with earlier, lower-level ccRCC and was associated with a better prognosis in the patients with ccRCC. Moreover, FGFR2 expression was not significantly related to B cells, T cells, NK cells and neutrophil infiltration, and the PPI network showed that FGFR2 protein interacted with certain molecules. Conclusion: Our work sheds light on the potential role of FGFR2 in the development of ccRCC, suggesting that FGFR2 may serve as a prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for patients with ccRCC.

    Correlation between metabolic syndrome and prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma
    Mei-ni ZUO,Yi-qing DU,Lu-ping YU,Xiang DAI,Tao XU
    2022, (4):  636-643.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.009    
    Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2342KB) ( 17 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the effects of MetS on the prognosis of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: Clinical and pathological data and the laboratory test of ccRCC 342 patients with diverticular stones who underwent ccRCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy were retrospectively collected and analyzed.The patients were divided into MetS group and non-MetS group, and the subgroups were defined according to the tumor size. The overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and progression-free survival (PFS) of the two groups were analyzed by univariate Cox analysis, and the subgroup analyses were also performed. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and survival analysis for OS, CSS, and PFS of the two groups and the subgroups were conducted. Results: Univariate Cox analysis showed that MetS was a protective factor of postoperative OS [hazard ratio (HR)=0.551, 95%CI: 0.321-0.949, P=0.031], CSS (HR=0.460, 95%CI: 0.234-0.905, P=0.025), and PFS (HR 0.585, 95%CI: 0.343-0.998, P=0.049) in the patients with ccRCC. In the subgroup with tumor size≤4 cm, MetS was not associated with postoperative OS (HR=0.857, 95%CI: 0.389-1.890, P=0.702), CSS (HR=1.129, 95%CI: 0.364-3.502, P=0.833), and PFS (HR=1.554, 95%CI: 0.625-3.864, P=0.343). In the subgroup with tumor size>4 cm, Mets was a protective factor of postoperative OS (HR=0.377, 95%CI: 0.175-0.812, P=0.013), CSS (HR=0.280, 95%CI: 0.113-0.690, P=0.006), and PFS (HR=0.332, 95%CI: 0.157-0.659, P=0.002); Obesity was a protective factor of postoperative CSS (HR=0.464, 95%CI: 0.219-0.981, P=0.044), and PFS (HR=0.445, 95%CI: 0.238-0.833, P=0.011). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the long-term survival of patients with MetS was better than those without MetS in OS (P=0.029), CSS (P=0.021), and PFS (P=0.046); for the subgroup with tumor size≤4 cm, there was no significant difference in postoperative OS (P=0.702), CSS (P=0.833), and PFS (P=0.339) between patients with and without MetS; For the subgroup with tumor size>4 cm, the OS (P=0.010), CSS (P=0.003), and PFS (P=0.001) of patients with MetS were better than those without MetS. Conclusion: MetS was a protective factor of postoperative OS, CSS, and PFS in the patients with ccRCC, which was more obvious in subgroup with tumor size>4 cm. And obesity, the component of MetS, was correlated with postoperative OS and CSS.

    Clinical features of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myositis in patients with urological cancer
    Yi-cen YING,Qi TANG,Kai-wei YANG,Yue MI,Yu FAN,Wei YU,Yi SONG,Zhi-song HE,Li-qun ZHOU,Xue-song LI
    2022, (4):  644-651.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.010    
    Abstract ( 55 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (1597KB) ( 27 )   Save
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    Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have significantly improved the treatment efficacy of a variety of malignant tumors. However, patients may experience a series of special side effects during treatments with ICI. Immune-related myositis after ICI treatment is characterized by autoimmune rheumatic and musculoskeletal damage, which is relatively rare. To analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of ICI-associated myositis in urological tumors, we summarized the clinical manifestations, electrophysiological and pathological characteristics, treatments and outcomes in 8 patients. Methods: The clinical data of the 8 patients with immune-related myositis after ICI treatment for urological tumors treated in the Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital from March 2018 to March 2022 were retrospectively analyzed for demographic characteristics, drug regimen, clinical symptoms, laboratory indices, electromyography examination, pathological manifestations and outcomes. Results: The eight patients included 2 females and 6 males with a median age of 68 years, all treated with ICI for urological neoplasms, including 2 upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), 3 renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and 3 bladder cancer (BCa). The median time between the first ICI treatment and the detection of immune-related myositis was 39.5 days, and the median duration of treatment was 2 sessions. The main symptoms were muscle pain and weakness, 5 cases with ptosis, 3 cases with secondary rhabdomyolysis, 5 cases with myocarditis, 1 case with myasthenia gravis, and 1 case with enterocolitis. Among them, patients with immune-related myocarditis had a shorter interval from the first anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) therapy to the onset of immune-related myositis (P=0.042) compared with patients without myocarditis. The 8 patients had significant elevation of transaminases and muscle enzyme profile indexes, and 5 patients showed positive auto-antibodies. 3 patients had perfected muscle biopsies and showed typical skeletal muscle inflammatory myopathy-like pathological changes with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophage infiltration. After the diagnosis of immune-related myositis, all the 8 patients immediately discontinued ICI therapy and improved after intravenous administration of methylprednisolone alone or in combination with gamma-globulin. Conclusion: Immune-related myositis after ICI treatment is an immune-related adverse reactions (irAEs) with unique clinical and pathological features, commonly combined with cardiovascular adverse reactions. Immediate discontinuation of ICI and initiation of glucocorticoid therapy may improve the patient's condition in a timely manner.

    Analysis of clinical outcome of synchronous micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in male infertility with Y chromosome azoospermia factor c region deletion
    Jia-ming MAO,Lian-ming ZHAO,De-feng LIU,Hao-cheng LIN,Yu-zhuo YANG,Hai-tao ZHANG,Kai HONG,Rong LI,Hui JIANG
    2022, (4):  652-657.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.011    
    Abstract ( 66 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (642KB) ( 16 )   Save
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    Objective: To analyze the clinical treatment results of male infertility caused by Y chromosome azoospermia factor c region(AZFc) deletion after synchronous micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to guide the treatment of infer- tile patients caused by AZFc deletion. Methods: The clinical data of infertile patients with AZFc deletion who underwent synchronous micro-TESE in Peking University Third Hospitalfrom January 2015 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical outcomes of ICSI in the patients who successfully obtained sperm were followed up and we compared the outcomes between the first and second synchronous procedures, including fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rate. Results: A total of 195 male infertile patients with AZFc deletion underwent micro-TESE. Fourteen patients were cryptozoospermia and their sperms were successfully obtained in all of them during the operation, and the sperm retrieval rate (SRR) was 100%(14/14). The remaining 181 cases were non obstructive azoospermia, and 122 cases were successfully found the sperm, the SRR was 67.4%(122/181). The remaining 59 patients with NOA could not found mature sperm during micro-TESE, accounting for 32.6% (59/181). We followed up the clinical treatment outcomes of the patients with successful sperm retrieved by synchronous micro-TESE and 99 patients were enrolled in the study. A total of 118 micro-TESE procedures and 120 ICSI cycles were carried out. Finally 38 couples successfully gave birth to 22 male and 22 female healthy infants, with a cumulative live birth rate of 38.4% (38/99). In the fresh-sperm ICSI cycle of the first and second synchronous operation procedures, the high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate of the fresh embryo transfer cycle and live birth rate of the oocyte retrieve cycle were 47.7% vs. 50.4%, 40.5% vs. 50.0%, and 28.3% vs. 41.2%, respectively. The second operation group was slightly higher than that of the first synchronous operation group, but there was no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Male infertility patients caused by AZFc deletion have a high probability of successfully obtaining sperm in testis through micro-TESE for ICSI and give birth to their own offspring with their own biological characteristics. For patients who failed in the first synchronous procedure, they still have the opportunity to successfully conceive offspring through reoperation and ICSI.

    Seasonal variations influenced the semen quality of the sperm donor in Beijing area
    Wen-hao TANG,Chen-yao DENG,Jiang-man GAO,Zhi-chao LUO,Han WU,Sen-lin TIAN,Nan WEI,Bin Li,Qian-cheng ZHAO,Jian-fei SONG,Liang ZHANG,Lu-lin MA,Hui JIANG
    2022, (4):  658-662.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.012    
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    Objective: To investigate the change trends of sperm quality with seasonal variations among the volunteers of sperm donors in Beijing area, as well as the relationship between two parameters. Methods: Semen data from the volunteers of sperm donors in Human Sperm Bank of Peking University Third Hospital were collected using a retrospective study method. The subjects were divided into 4 seasonal groups based on the lunar solar terms and the time of sperm donation. The data were assessed to find whether there were differences in semen parameters among different seasonal groups, and to analyze the change trends and the influence of seasonal factors on semen parameters. Results: A total of 21 174 semen parameter data were analyzed. Firstly, to analyze all data as a whole, in spring, summer, autumn and winter groups, sperm concentration was (106.04±59.67)×106/mL, (97.61±47.41)×106/mL, (100.18±47.17)×106/mL, (100.59±38.68)×106/mL, respectively, and the spring group was significantly higher than the other 3 seasonal groups (P < 0.001); proportion of progressive motility sperm (PR) was 56.49%±12.76%, 58.02%±13.65%, 58.05%±12.36%, and 57.66%±12.61%, respectively, spring group was lower than the other three seasonal groups, and summer group was better among the latter (P < 0.001). There was no difference in normal rate of sperm morphology among the four seasonal groups. The qualified rate of sperm donors in the winter group was higher than that in the other three seasons groups (P < 0.01), while the qualified rate in the summer group was lower than that in the other three seasons groups. In addition, the semen parameters of the volunteers during the screening period and the official sperm donation period were analyzed respectively, which revealed that sperm concentration of spring group was higher than that of summer and winter groups, and PR was lower than that of summer and autumn groups. On account of the semen parameters of official sperm donation period, multiple linear regression analysis found that season was the main factor affecting sperm concentration, the average sperm concentration in spring group was about 6×106/mL higher than in winter group, but PR was 2.9% lower in spring group compared with autumn group (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Season was the influencing factor of semen quality of sperm donors in Beijing area. We recommend spring and winter may be the preferred seasons for sperm donation.

    Establishment of a mutation prediction model for evaluating the efficacy of immunotherapy in renal carcinoma
    Cai-peng QIN,Yu-xuan SONG,Meng-ting DING,Fei WANG,Jia-xing LIN,Wen-bo YANG,Yi-qing DU,Qing LI,Shi-jun LIU,Tao XU
    2022, (4):  663-668.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.013    
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    Objective: To establish a mutation prediction model for efficacy assessment, the genomic sequencing data of renal cancer patients from the MSKCC (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) pan-cancer immunotherapy cohort was used. Methods: The genomic sequencing data of 121 clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in the MSKCC pan-cancer immunotherapy cohort were obtained from cBioPortal database (http://www.cbioportal.org/) and they were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify mutated genes associated with ICI treatment efficacy, and we constructed a comprehensive prediction model for drug efficacy of ICI based on mutated genes using nomogram. Survival analysis and time-dependent receiver operator characteristic curves were performed to assess the prognostic value of the model. Transcriptome and genomic sequencing data of 538 renal cell carcinoma patients were obtained from the TCGA database (https://portal.gdc.cancer.gov/). Gene set enrichment analysis was used to identify the potential functions of the mutated genes enrolled in the nomogram. Results: We used multivariate Cox regression analysis and identified mutations in PBRM1 and ARID1A were associated with treatment outcomes in the patients with renal cancer in the MSKCC pan-cancer immunotherapy cohort. Based on this, we established an efficacy prediction model including age, gender, treatment type, tumor mutational burden (TMB), PBRM1 and ARID1A mutation status (HR=4.33, 95%CI: 1.42-13.23, P=0.01, 1-year survival AUC=0.700, 2-year survival AUC=0.825, 3-year survival AUC=0.776). The validation (HR=2.72, 95%CI: 1.12-6.64, P=0.027, 1-year survival AUC=0.694, 2-year survival AUC=0.709, 3-year survival AUC=0.609) and combination (HR=2.20, 95%CI: 1.14-4.26, P=0.019, 1-year survival AUC=0.613, 2-year survival AUC=0.687, 3-year survival AUC=0.526) sets confirmed these results. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that PBRM1 was involved in positive regulation of epithelial cell differentiation, regulation of the T cell differentiation and regulation of humoral immune response. In addition, ARID1A was involved in regulation of the T cell activation, positive regulation of T cell mediated cyto-toxicity and positive regulation of immune effector process. Conclusion: PBRM1 and ARID1A mutations can be used as potential biomarkers for the evaluation of renal cancer immunotherapy efficacy. The efficacy prediction model established based on the mutation status of the above two genes can be used to screen renal cancer patients who are more suitable for ICI immunotherapy.

    Optimal surveillance intensity of cystoscopy in intermediate-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
    Fei WANG,Cai-peng QIN,Yi-qing DU,Shi-jun LIU,Qing LI,Tao XU
    2022, (4):  669-673.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.014    
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    Objective: To determine the optimal cystoscopic frequency for intermediate-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods: Patients with intermediate-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor in Peking University People's Hospital from January 2001 to October 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. Their clinical, pathological and follow-up data were collected. In postoperative 2-year period, the patients were underwent cystoscopy every 3 to 6 months. Depending on recurrence and progression of the patients, we hypothesized three strategies of surveillance intensity in the first 2 years after surgery: model 1: 3-month intervals, model 2: 6-month intervals, and model 3: 12-month intervals. The differences in the numbers and time of delayed detection of recurrence and progression were compared among the three models. Results: A total of 185 patients were enrolled, including 144 males (77.8%) and 41 females (22.2%). The median age was 68 (59-76) years. There were 118 cases (63.8%) with single tumor and 67 cases (36.2%) with multiple tumor. Of the patients 179 (96.8%) had stage Ta and 6 (3.2%) had stage T1. There were 108 cases (58.4%) with high-grade disease and 77 cases (41.6%) with low-grade disease. During the follow-up period of the first 2 years, 52 patients (28.1%) had recurrence, 133 cases (71.9%) had no recurrence, 11 cases (5.9%) had progression and 174 cases (94.1%) had no progression. Compared with model 1, 29 (55.8%) delayed detection of recurrence in model 2 vs. 41 (78.8%) delayed detection of recurrence in model 3, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.012). The median delayed time of detecting recurrence was 1.00 months in model 1, 1.99 months in model 2 and 4.19 months in model 3, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between mode 1 and model 3 (P=0.001), and between model 2 and model 3 (P=0.013). Compared with model 1, 5 (45.4%) delayed detection of progression in model 2 vs. 8 (72.7%) delayed detection of progression in model 3, and the difference was not statistically significant. The median delayed time of detecting progression was 1.00 month in model 1, 2.00 months in model 2 and 3.00 months in model 3, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among them. Conclusion: Although providing slightly slower detection of tumor recurrence and progression, compared with 3-month intervals of cystoscopy, 6-month intervals do not result in serious adverse outcomes and reduce cost and pain of the patients, which is feasible in intermediate-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    Long-term efficacy evaluation of coated metal stent implantation for ureteroscopic lithotripsy related refractory ureteral stricture
    Chun-long ZHANG,Ming-rui WANG,Ming-rui WANG,Ke-xin XU,Tao XU,Hao HU
    2022, (4):  674-679.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.015    
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    Objective: To comprehensively evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of coated metal stent implantation for ureteroscopic lithotripsy related refractory ureteral stricture (URL-rUS). Methods: Electronic medical records of 30 patients (31 affected renal units) receiving coated metal stent implantation for URL-rUS from Sept. 2018 to Aug. 2021 at Peking University People' s Hospital were reviewed for analysis. Coated metal stents were implanted in retrograde approach via ureteroscope. Last outpatient follow-up was set as endpoint. Baseline information, stricture characteristics and decompression strategy before coated metal stent implantation were retrospectively collected. Serum creatinine (Scr) concentration and renal pelvis width (RPW) were used as renal function indicators. Peri-operative and long-term complications and according outcomes were recorded. For the patients who had double J tubes implanted for drainage before operation, Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ) was applied to evaluate the stent-related discomforts and quality of life (QoL) before and after surgery. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS (version 25.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Totally 30 patients with 31 affected renal units were included. All the patients previously underwent unsuccessful traditional endoscopic balloon dilation or endoureterotomy before receiving coated metal stent implantation. The mean age was (45.5±9.3) years old. The median follow-up time were 14 (6-36) months. All coated metal stents were successfully placed with a median duration of 60 (30-195) min. No severe peri-operative complications occurred. At endpoint, 28 (90.3%) sides of coated metal stents remained unobstructed with a longest indwelling time of 36 months. Causes of failures included stent migration (1 case, 3.2%), encrustation (1 case, 3.2%) and repeated stent related urinary tract infection (1 case, 3.2%). When compared with the baseline, significant reductions were observed in both Scr concentration and RPW at endpoint [(90.7±19.5) mmol/L vs. (83.1±18.5) μmol/L, P < 0.01, for Scr; (2.5±1.3) cm vs. (1.9±0.8) cm, P < 0.01, for RPW], indicating good preservation of renal function and remission of hydronephrosis. For 26 patients with double J stents before operation, significant reduction of USSQ average score (100.4±6.6 vs. 82.1±4.9, P < 0.01) evidenced better life quality preserving ability of coated metal stent versus double J stent. Conclusion: Coated metal stent implantation is a safe and minimally invasive management of ureteral stricture providing a satisfying long-term patency rate, after which the patients' quality of life and renal function could be both improved. This method could serve as a promising alternative long-term maintenance treatment option for patients with URL-US, especially when traditional endoscopic interventions failed.

    Treatment and prognosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasms complicated with renal cell carcinoma
    Min QIU,Yan-yan LIAN,Min LU,Bin-shuai WANG,Xiao-jun TIAN,Jian LU,Cheng LIU,Shu-dong ZHANG,Min JIANG,Lu-lin MA
    2022, (4):  680-685.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.016    
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    Objective: To investigate the treatment and prognosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN) complicated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and to make risk stratification. Methods: A retrospective study of 27 cases of MPMN with RCC in two centers, including the different tumors of MPMN, specific treatment methods, and the interval between primary cancers. At the same time, the survival conditions, including recurrence, metastasis and survival, were followed up for statistical analysis. The interval between the two kinds of primary cancer within 6 months was simultaneous MPMNs, and more than 6 months was metachronous MPMNs. For simple risk stratification of cases, as long as one of the MPMNs had a stage Ⅲ or higher malignancy, which was defined as high risk. Results: Among the 27 patients, 20 were male and 7 were female, with age at the time of diagnosis was 42-82 years, with an average age of (61.3±11.7) years. The age at the diagnosis of renal cancer was 43-87 years, with an average age of (66.0±11.3) years. There were 21 cases with duplex primary malignant neoplasms, 4 cases with triple primary malignant neoplasms, and 2 cases with quadruple primary malignant neoplasms. The interval between first cancer and second cancer was 0-360 months, with a median of 18 months. There were 17 cases of metachronous multiple primary malignant neoplasms and 10 cases of simultaneous multiple primary malignant neoplasms. The most common system of MPMN with comorbid RCC involved urologic system, digestive system and respiratory system. The most common locations of MPMN with comorbid RCC were bladder cancer, lung cancer and colon cancer. Follow-up time calcu- lated from the last cancer was 2-156 months, with a median of 32 months. And 14 cases survived and 13 cases died, with 11 cases being tumor related. Tumor stage was the risk factor of prognosis. Any kind of tumor stage in stage Ⅲ or above had a relatively poor prognosis. Conclusion: MPMN complicated with RCC is relatively rare. Standard treatment should be used for each cancer type during the treatment process. The prognosis mainly depends on the highest stage of each tumor. Simple risk stratification shows that the prognosis of the high-risk group is worse. This simple stratification method may be helpful to predict the prognosis.

    Risk factors of persistent hypertension in primary aldosteronism patients after surgery
    Yu-chao HUANG-FU,Yi-qing DU,Lu-ping YU,Tao XU
    2022, (4):  686-691.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.017    
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    Objective: To analyze the risk factors of persistent hypertension in patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism and to evaluate the predictive value of the aldosteronoma resolution score (ARS) scoring system for surgical outcomes of adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism. Methods: We reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism from 2018 to 2021 at Peking University People' s Hospital to recognize risk factors of uncured hypertension after surgery. Based on the patient' s clinical outcomes, the patients were divided into complete success group and partial/absent success group. Risk factors for persistent hypertension were analyzed. The value of the ARS scoring system was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC). Results: In this study, 112 patients were included. Most of the patients benefited from the surgery for 94.6% were a complete or partial clinical success after follow-up for at least 6 months. According to postoperative hypertension status, the patients were divided into complete success group (51 cases) and partial/absent success group (61 cases). There were statistical differences between the two groups in age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, duration of hypertension, number of preoperative antihypertension medications, preoperative systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes, history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.111, 95%CI: 1.029-1.199), waist circumference (OR=1.073, 95%CI: 1.013-1.137), pre-operative systolic blood pressure (OR=1.033, 95%CI: 1.008-1.060) and history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (OR=16.061, 95%CI: 1.312-196.612) were the risk factors for uncured hypertension in primary aldosteronism patients after surgery, but female gender not. The median ARS in the complete success group was 4 and in the partial/absent success group, it was 2. Among the patients with ARS of 4-5, the cure rate of hypertension was 76.5%. The area under the curve of ARS was 0.743. Conclusion: The history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is a significant risk factor for persistent hypertension after surgery in primary aldosteronism patients. ARS scoring system has a certain value in predicting the postoperative hypertension status of primary aldosteronism patients. However, further research is still needed on a prediction model for surgical outcomes of primary aldosteronism which is more suitable for the Chinese population is still needed.

    Trends in upper urinary tract reconstruction surgery over a decade based on a multi-center database
    Wei ZUO,Fei GAO,Chang-wei YUAN,Sheng-wei XIONG,Zhi-hua LI,Lei ZHANG,Kun-lin YANG,Xin-fei LI,Liang LIU,Lai WEI,Peng ZHANG,Bing WANG,Ya-ming GU,Hong-jian ZHU,Zheng ZHAO,Xue-song LI
    2022, (4):  692-698.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.018    
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    Objective: To study the trend of surgical type, surgical procedure and etiological distribution of upper urinary tract repair in recent 10 years. Methods: The preoperative and perioperative variables and follow-up data of upper urinary tract reconstruction surgery in RECUTTER (Reconstruction of Urinary Tract: Technology, Epidemiology and Result) database from 2010 to 2021 were searched, collected and analyzed. The surgical type, surgical procedure, duration of hospitalization, time of operation, incidence of short-term complications, and proportion of the patients undergoing reoperations were compared between the two groups of 2010-2017 period and 2018-2021 period. Results: A total of 1 072 patients were included in the RECUTTER database. Congenital factors and iatrogenic injuries were the main causes of upper urinary tract repair. Among them, 129 (12.0%) patients had open operation, 403 (37.6%) patients had laparoscopic surgery, 322 (30.0%) patients had robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery and 218 (20.3%) patients had endourological procedure. In the last decade, the total number of surgeries showed a noticeable increasing annual trend and the proportion of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in 2018-2021 was significantly higher than that in 2010-2017 (P < 0.001). The 1 072 patients included 124 (11.6%) cases of ileal ureter replacements, 440 (41.1%) cases of pyeloplasty, 229 (21.4%) cases of balloon dilation, 109 (10.2%) cases of ureteral reimplantation, 49 (4.6%) cases of boari flap-Psoas hitch surgery, 60 (5.6%) cases of uretero-ureteral anastomosis, 61 (5.7%) cases of lingual mucosal onlay graft ureteroplasty or appendiceal onlay flap ureteroplasty. Pyeloplasty and balloon dilatation had been the main types of surgery, while the proportion of lingual mucosal onlay graft ureteroplasty plus appendiceal onlay flap ureteroplasty had increased significantly in recent years (P < 0.05). In addition, the time of operation was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after 2018, which was considered to be related to the sharp increase in the proportion of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. We found that minimally invasive surgery (endourological procedure and robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery) as an independent risk factor (P=0.050, OR=0.472) could reduce the incidence of short-term post-operative complications. Conclusion: We have justified the value of the RECUTTER database, created by the Institute of Urology, Peking University in data support for clinical research work, and provided valuable experience for the construction of other multi-center databases at home and abroad. In recent 10 years, we have observed that, in upper urinary tract reconstruction surgery, the surgery type tends to be minimally invasive and the surgery procedure tends to be complicated, suggesting the superiority of robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    Development and clinical application of the health education knowledge assessment questionnaire for gout
    Xiao-wei XIE,Fen LI,Guang-hui LING,Xi XIE,Su-qing XU,Yi-yue CHEN
    2022, (4):  699-704.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.019    
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    Objective: To develop and test the health education knowledge assessment questionnaire for gout and to investigate the understanding degree of health education knowledge in patients with gout. Methods: From June 2019 to June 2019, 150 cases of gout patients were enrolled.According to the literature review and the healthy education requirements of gout patients, the framework of education knowledge system was preliminarily formed.The pre-test questionnaire was obtained through two rounds of he Delphi technique.A survey of 150 patients with gout was carried out.The analysis and selection of the questionnaire were based on the coefficient of variation, the analysis of determination value, the correlation coefficient of the items and the total scores, and the exploratory factor analysis.In this study, we evaluated the reliability of internal consistency, semi-reliability.Validity test mainly included content validity and construct validity.In addition, a total of 150 patients with gout in our hospital and outpatient gout were selected to investigate the understanding degree of health education knowledge from June 2019 to December 2019. Results: The significance of the first level index of the questionnaire was 3.83-5.00, the secondary index was 3.00-4.83, and the variation coefficient of each item was 0.31-1.23, and the critical ratio(CR) value of each item in this questionnaire was 3.168-8.333.The Pearson correlation coefficient of each item and the total score of this study was 0.319-0.544.After exploratory factor analysis, some topics were deleted in four dimensions, and there were 16 entries in the final questionnaire.Cronbach' s α coefficient of this questionnaire was 0.715, split-half reliability Spearman-Brown coefficient was 0.785, and retest reliability coefficient was 0.729. The correlation coefficient between each factor of this questionnaire and the total questionnaire was 0.300-0.701, and the correlation coefficient between each item of the questionnaire and each factor was 0.402-0.732, all P < 0.05. The results were statistically significant. By questionnaire investigation, the total score of questionnaire was (6.85±3.22), the score of disease-related knowledge was (2.03±1.24), the score of dietary guidance was (1.53± 1.06), the score of exercise guidance was (2.19±1.24), the score of medication guide was (1.24±1.22). Conclusion: The Health Education Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire For Gout has a good reliability and validity for measuring related content, the compilation process is scientific and the content is comprehensive, which can be further applied in clinic.The understanding degree of health education knowledge is low in Chinese patients with gout, and knowledge of gout medicine is lacking especially.

    Evaluation of ocular surface status and function in primary Sjögren's syndrome with hypothyroidism
    Hao-zhe YU,Wei-zhen ZENG,Wen-yu WU,Zhong-qiang YAO,Yun FENG
    2022, (4):  705-711.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.020    
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    Objective: To explore the effect of hypothyroidism (HT) on the ocular surface status of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome-related dry eye (pSS-DED). Methods: The cross-sectional study included 36 patients with pSS-DED who were treated at the dry eye clinic of Peking University Third Hospital from December 2020 to June 2021, of whom 12 were pSS-DED patients combined with HT. In the same period, 24 patients with simple dry eye disease (DED) were served as a control group. All the patients filled out the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, and performed tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer test, tear meniscus height, corneal/conjunctival fluorescein staining, meibomian gland secretion capacity, meibum evaluation and confocal microscope examination. Results: (1) Compared with pSS-DED and simple DED patients, pSS-DED +HT patients had lower average BUT [(2.7±0.8) s], Schirmer test [(4.9±4.8) mm] and tear meniscus height [(0.13±0.03) mm], and the difference was statistically significant (F=12.43, P < 0.01; F=6.96, P < 0.01; F=3.31, P < 0.05). (2) Compared with DED and pSS-DED patients, the meibomian gland secretion capacity and meibomian trait scores of pSS-DED+HT patients were mainly distributed in the high division. There were statistically significant differences in the distribution of secretion capacity of meibomian glands (χ2=10.72, P < 0.05) and meibomian trait assessment scores (χ2=8.34, P < 0.05) among the three groups. (3) Serum total thyroxine and serum free thyroxine levels in the pSS-DED+HT patients showed positive correlation (P < 0.05, P < 0.05) with their BUT (r=0.60, 0.60), Schirmer's test (r=0.64, 0.66) and tear river height (r=0.61, 0.62), independent of lid gland secretory capacity; no significant correlation was found between thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and lid gland secretory capacity. Thyroid hormone, anti-thyroglobulin antibody, and thyroid peroxidase antibody were not found to be significantly correlated with ocular surface status. (4) Compared with pSS-DED, the fiber density of the subbasal nerve plexus in pSS-DED+HT group decreased (t=2.06, P < 0.05), and the curvature score increased (t=2.13, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The ocular surface condition of pSS-DED patients with HT is worse than that of pSS-DED and DED patients. The main manifestations are that tear secretion, tear film stability, secretory function of the meibomian glands, meibum trait and fiber density of the subbasal nerve plexus decrease while the curvature increases. The mechanism might be related to the decrease in thyroid hormone production.

    Normative values of cervical sagittal alignment according to the whole spine balance: Based on 126 asymptomatic Chinese young adults
    Yan-chao TANG,Wen-kui ZHAO,Miao YU,Xiao-guang LIU
    2022, (4):  712-718.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.021    
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    Objective: To explore the normal distribution of cervical sagittal alignment and the relationship between cervical alignment and global spine balance in asymptomatic young adults. Methods: A cohort of 272 asymptomatic Chinese adults (including 161 males and 111 females, with an average age of (23.2±4.4) years, ranging from 18 to 45 years) were prospectively recruited from November 2011 to December 2014. The C0-C2 angle, disk angles from C2-C3 to C6-C7, vertebral angles from C3 to C7, T1 slope, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2-C7SVA), center of gravity of head to C7SVA (CGH-C7SVA), C7-S1SVA were measured and statistically analyzed. All the subjects were categorized with the Roussouly classification and the cervical morphologies were evaluated as lordotic, straight, sigmoid or kyphotic. Spinal sagittal alignment parameters were compared between different sexes and Roussouly classifications with independent student t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Chi-square test. Correlations between cervical sagittal alignment and global spine sagittal alignment were calculated using the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient. Linear regression analysis was performed. Results: Sixty-seven males and 59 females aged from 18 to 30 years old were included in the study. The mean value of C0-C7 was 26.0°±12.8°, composed of 15.2°±6.7° for C0-C2, 9.1°±12.1° for sum of disk angles from C2-C3 to C6-C7, and 1.4°±10.2° for sum of vertebral angles from C3 to C7. C2-C7SVA [(18.6±7.9) mm] and CGH-C7SVA [(22.9±12.3) mm]were offset ideally by C7-S1SVA [(-21.6±31.0) mm]. Males had a larger T1 slope (P < 0.05) and accordingly, a larger cervical lordosis C2-C7 (P < 0.01) and C0-C7 angle (P < 0.01) than females. Males had a smaller C7-S1SVA (P < 0.01) and accordingly, a smaller CGH-C7SVA (P=0.165) than females. Significant difference was found between cervical alignment of different Roussouly types (P < 0.01). In general, a larger LL was consistent with a set of larger TK, C2-C7angle, C0-C7 angle, and vice versa. There was no significant correlation between cervical morphology and the Roussouly classification (Chi-square=10.548, P=0.308). There was significant correlation between cervical alignment and T1 slope (P < 0.01), TK (P < 0.01). There was significant correlation between adjacent segmental angles from T1 slope up to C0-C2 angle (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Normative values of each vertebral angle and disk angle were established. The cervical lordosis occurred mainly at C0-C2 and disk levels, which was influenced by parameters of other parts of the spine, such as T1 slope, TK and the Roussouly classification. There was significant correlation between adjacent disk angles.

    Evaluation of root resorption after surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion by three-dimensional volumetric measurement with cone-beam CT
    Juan GAO,Hang-miao LV,Hui-min MA,Yi-jiao ZHAO,Xiao-tong LI
    2022, (4):  719-726.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.022    
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    Objective: To explore the method of measuring root volume with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) three-dimensional reconstruction technology, and to study root length and root volume of upper and lower central incisors in patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion treated by surgical orthodontic treatment. Methods: Twenty patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion undergoing surgical orthodontic treatment were selected. CBCT data at three time points, before decompensation treatment (T0), after decompensation treatment (before orthognathic surgery, T1), and the end of post-operative orthodontic treatment (T2) were collected. Three-dimensional reconstruction technology was used to measure the root length and root volume of the upper and lower central incisors (including total root volume, cervical root and apical root), calculate the percentage of reduction volume, and measure the distance of tooth movement after orthodontic treatment. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 20.0 software. Least significant difference (LSD) method was used for pair comparison between the groups subject to normal distribution, and non-parametric test was used for comparison between the groups not subject to normal distribution. The differences of root length and root volume of upper and lower incisors were compared, and the characteristics of root absorption were analyzed. Results: Root length and root volume of the upper and lower central incisors were reduced during the surgical orthodontic treatment (P < 0.05) in cases. Both the root volume of cervical root and apical root were significantly reduced (P < 0.05), the reduction of apical root was more significant. The percentage of root volume reduction of the upper central incisor was (30.51±23.23)%, and lower central incisor (23.24±11.96)%. Compared with the upper central incisor, the root volume reduction amount and percentage of the lower central incisor were smaller, and apical root volume reduction of the upper central incisor was greater than that of the lower central incisor, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). During pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, maxillary central incisor palatal moving was in a controlled tipping manner, and the mandibular central incisor tipped labially. Conclusion: In patients with skeletal Class Ⅲ malocclusion, root length and total root volume of upper and lower central incisors decreased during surgical orthodontic treatment. Root volume measurement indicated that the cervical root also had root resorption. The difference in root resorption of the upper and lower central incisors might be related to the distance and direction of teeth movement. CBCT three-dimensional reconstruction will compensate for the limitation of root length measurement in evaluating root resorption.

    Investigation on mindfulness level of patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor after operation and analysis of its influencing factors
    Rui MA,Yan XUAN,Yao DUAN,Ting SHUAI
    2022, (4):  727-734.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.023    
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    Objective: To investigate the status quo of postoperative mindfulness level in patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors, to analyze its influencing factors, and to provide targeted support for the patients, in order to provide evidence for clinical support. Methods: A total of 452 patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor who were admitted to the Peking University School of Stomatology from January 2021 to June 2021 were followed up by convenience sampling method, the general information questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the 10-item perceived stress scale, and the self-esteem scale were used. The t test and analysis of variance were used to compare the scores of mindfulness of the patients with different demographic characteristics after oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors, and the differences of mindfulness levels between the patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors and the normal population were compared by the Z test, Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the scores of mindfulness and perceived stress and self-esteem. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of mindfulness levels. Results: A total of 439 valid questionnaires were collected. The average score of postoperative mindfulness of the patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor was 120.28±13.86. The scores of each dimension from high to low were as follows: act with awareness, non-judging, describing, observing, and non-reacting. Compared with the normal population, the patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor showed significant differences in the total scores and scores of various dimensions after surgery. The t test and ANOVA showed that different duration of disease, age, residence, education, marital status, per capita monthly income, occupation, and medical payment methods had influences on postoperative mindfulness level of the patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor (P < 0.10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that the level of mindfulness was negatively correlated with the level of perceived stress, and positively correlated with the level of self-esteem. The duration of illness, marital status, stress perception and self-esteem were included in the regression equation, suggesting that postoperative mindfulness levels of the patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumor had an important effect. Conclusion: Patients with oral and maxillofacial malignant tumors have low postoperative mindfulness, which is related to duration of disease, marital status, and the level of perceived stress. Medical staff should identify this group as soon as possible, provide effective psychological intervention, help to improve the level of mindfulness, and strive to improve the patients'mental health.

    Urodynamic and histological evaluation of cyclophosphamide-induced bladder pain syndrome in SD rats
    Lin ZHU,Wei-yu ZHANG,Ke-xin XU
    2022, (4):  735-740.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.024    
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    Objective: To establish a model of bladder pain syndrome in SD rats by cyclophosphamide intraperitoneal injection, to evaluate the effectiveness of the model from the urodynamic and histological levels, to lay a zoological foundation for the clinical study of bladder pain syndrome, and to further guide clinical treatment. Methods: Thirty-two 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including acute test group, acute control group, chronic test group, and chronic control group, with 8 rats in each group. The acute test group received intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide 150 mg/kg immediately after the measurement of urodynamic data on the first day, and urodynamic examination was performed again 2 days later. After that, the rats were sacrificed to obtain bladder tissue. In the chronic test group, after measuring the baseline data of urodynamics on the first day, cyclophosphamide 75 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected on the first, fourth, and seventh days, and the rats were sacrificed after measuring the urodynamic data again on the eighth day to obtain bladder tissue. The acute control group and the chronic control group were injected with the same amount of normal saline during intraperitoneal injection, and the urodynamic testing time point were consistent with the corresponding test groups. Histopathological changes of the bladder were assessed by HE staining. Results: In each acute and chronic group, there were no intragroup differences in baseline urodynamic levels between the test and control groups. The urodynamic maximum bladder volume was significantly reduced in the acute test group after administration(t=-2.961, P < 0.05), histologically, severe interstitial edema, obvious inflammatory cell infiltration, mucosal edema and submucosal hemorrhage, and partial urothelium were absent could be seen, which were consistent with acute cystitis performance. The urodynamic maximum bladder capacity was significantly reduced in the chronic test group after administration (t=-3.886, P < 0.05), and the bladder compliance was lower than that in the control group, but not significant, the histological manifestations were urothelial exfoliation, interstitial edema, submucosal hemorrhage, infiltration of inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, and dense vascular distribution. Conclusion: In the acute test group, a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide could induce acute bladder inflammation in the rats. In the chronic test group, repeated injections of cyclophosphamide could induce histological changes in chronic inflammation of chronic bladder pain syndrome in the rats. But the bladder function was not significantly impaired.

    Treatment of adult-acquired buried penis with suprapubic liposuction combined with modified Devine operation
    Hai-long HE,Qing LI,Tao XU,Xiao-wei ZHANG
    2022, (4):  741-745.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.025    
    Abstract ( 409 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1447KB) ( 23 )   Save
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    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of suprapubic liposuction combined with modified Devine surgery in adult patients with concealed penis caused by obesity. Methods: The clinical data of 26 adult patients with buried penis admitted to the Department of Urology of Peking University People' s Hospital and the Department of Surgery of Beijing Eden Hospital from September 2017 to June 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The average age of the patients was (33.0 ± 5.7) years, the average body mass index (BMI) was (29.0±5.4) kg/m2, and the penis length in the supine position was (2.9±1.3) cm. All the patients were treated with suprapubic liposuction combined with modified Devine operation. The improvement of penis length and complications were statistically analyzed after operation, and the satisfaction of the patients was followed up, 1 = dissatisfied; 2 = basically satisfied; 3 = satisfied; 4 = very satisfied. The measurement data were expressed in (mean±SD), nonparametric Friedman tests and multiplex analysis methods were used for data comparison. Results: The average liposuction volume of the 26 patients was (450.0±90.2) mL. Immediately after operation: the penis length was (7.4±2.1) cm, increased by (4.5±1.6) cm compared with that before operation; three months after operation: the penis length was (5.3±1.8) cm, increased by (2.4±0.7) cm compared with that before operation. There was significant difference in penis length before operation, immediately after operation and three months after operation (P < 0.01). All the patients had no sexual intercourse disorder or dysuria. Postoperative edema occurred in 11 cases (42.3%), ecchymosis in 7 cases (26.9%), poor healing of prepuce wound in 2 cases (7.8%), hematoma in 1 case (3.8%), 5 cases (19.2%) without postoperative complications, and no patient had wound infection. Seventeen patients (65.4%) were very satisfied with the appearance and function of the penis, 6 patients (23.1%) were satisfied, 3 patients (11.5%) were basically satisfied, and no patients were dissatisfied. The average score of all the patients' satisfaction with postoperative penis appearance and function was (3.5±0.7). Conclusion: Suprapubic liposuction combined with modified Devine operation is safe and effective in the treatment of adult-acquired buried penis.

    Laparoscopic pyeloplasty combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy via nephroscope for treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction with renal calculi
    Li-zhe AN,Liu-lin XIONG,Liang CHEN,Huan-rui WANG,Wei-nan CHEN,Xiao-bo HUANG
    2022, (4):  746-750.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.026    
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1286KB) ( 11 )   Save
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    Objective: To investigate the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic pyeloplasty combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy via nephroscope in the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with renal calculi. Methods: From June 2016 to January 2022, eight patients including five males and three females underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy via 19.5F(1F≈0.33 mm) nephroscope in Peking University People' s Hospital. The age ranged from 23-51 years (mean: 40.5 years) and the body mass index (BMI) ranged from 18.8-32.4 kg/m2 (mean 27.0 kg/m2). The lesion located on the left side in all of the eight patients. Two patients had solitary kidney and one patient had horseshoe kidney. Solitary stone was seen in one patient and the other seven patients suffered multiple stones, with two patients had staghorn stones. The largest diameter of stones ranged from 0.6-2.5 cm (mean: 1.5 cm). CT or ultrasound showed that moderate nephrosis was seen in five patients and severe nephrosis was seen in three patients. During surgery, after exposure of renal pelvis and proximal ureter, a small incision of 1.5 cm was performed in the anterior wall of the renal pelvis, and a 19.5F nephroscope was introduced into renal pelvis through laparoscopic trocar and renal pelvis incision. Stones were fragmented and sucked out by 3.3 mm ultrasonic probe placed through nephroscope. After stones were removed, modified laparoscopic pyeloplasty was performed. Results: Surgery was successfully completed in all of the eight patients without conversion to open surgery. The operation time ranged from 160-254 min (mean 213 min) and the time of nephroscopic management time was 25-40 min (mean: 33 min). The hemoglobin was decreased by 3-21 g/L (mean: 10.3 g/L). The stone-free rate was 75% (6/8 cases), stones were incompletely removed in two patients due to abnormal intrarenal structure. The modified Clavien classification system (MCCS) grade ⅢA complication occurred in one patient postoperatively, which was nephrosis due to intrarenal bleeding, and nephrostomy was performed. With the mean follow-up of 30 months (ranged from 2-68 months), there was no evidence of obstruction in all the patients, and one patient underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy to treat residual calculi. Conclusion: Laparoscopic pyeloplasty combined with ultrasonic lithotripsy via 19.5F nephroscope is feasible and safe, and could be a complementary method to treat UPJO and renal calculi.

    Successful assisted reproductive technology treatment for a woman with 46XX-17α-hydroxylase deficiency: A case report
    Chun-mei ZHANG,Rui YANG,Rong LI,Jie QIAO,Hai-ning WANG,Ying WANG
    2022, (4):  751-755.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.027    
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1550KB) ( 45 )   Save
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    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder, and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17α-OHD) is a rare type of CAH. 17α-OHD is caused by CYP17 gene mutation, resulting in partial or complete deficiency of 17α-hydroxylase, which in turn leads to the lack of cortisol and sex hormone production. The disease is manifested by excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), decreased levels of estradiol (E2) and androgen, elevated levels of proges-terone (P), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Most of the patients are female in gender. According to the chromosome karyotype, 17α-OHD can be divided into 46XX and 46XY, of which 46XX is rarer. The clinical manifestations are hypokalemia and hypertension. Patients with 46XX-karyotype may have irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, and infertility. The severity of symptoms varies according to the degree of 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. Due to its untypical manifestation, the patients with partial 17α-OHD are more likely to be missed or misdiagnosed. Some 17α-OHD patients with 46, XX karyotypes have different degrees of development of internal and external reproductive organ and spontaneous menstrual cycle, so they may have the potential ovulation and fertility opportunities. However, due to the adverse effects of high serum P level on the endometrium, the patients would have infertility problems. To date, four cases from foreign countries have been reported about the infertility treatments among 46XX-17α-OHD patients, and two cases were mentioned in China without describing the process of treatments. Here, one case with partial 46XX-17α-OHD was diagnosed and successfully conceived and delivered after in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in the Center for Reproductive Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital. Controlled ovarian stimulation with ultra-long protocol was initiated after glucocorticoid therapy was given to reduce P level. Ten oocytes were obtained and 6 embryos were cryopreserved. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer under hormonal replacement after gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) was carried out in an artificial cycle, and then the patient was successfully pregnant and delivered a healthy boy after 37 weeks of gestation by cesarean section. The treatment of this case suggests that patients with partial 46XX-17α-OHD can obtain oocytes and embryos with good quality. IVF combined with frozen-thawed embryo transfer under artificial cycle is an effective method for patients with partial 46XX-17α-OHD with infertility.

    Kawasaki disease complicated with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion: A case report and literature review
    Yan-yan DU,Jian WANG,Lan HE,Li-na JI,Xi-wei XU
    2022, (4):  756-761.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.028    
    Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (989KB) ( 34 )   Save
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    We reported a pediatric case of Kawasaki disease complicated with mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) from Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and the related literature was reviewed. The clinical features, treatment and prognosis of the disease were summarized to improve recognition of Kawasaki disease complicated with MERS. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease due to continuous high fever for 6 d, accompanied by strawberry tongue, conjunctival congestion, erythema-like hyperemia rash, and cervical enlarged lymph nodes. And treatment was started with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG: 2 g/kg) and oral aspirin [40 mg/(kg·d)]. Twenty-four hours after the treatment of IVIG, the patient' s fever persisted and in addition he developed headache and drowsiness. His cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a localized lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum with high intensity signal on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and T2-weighted, and low intensity signal on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T1-weighted. Based on these findings, he was diagnosed with MERS-complicated Kawasaki disease. Methylprednisolone [2 mg/(kg·d)] treatment was started intravenously, and within several hours he was afebrile and the neurological symptoms disappeared. A follow-up MRI was conducted after 1 week was normal. He was discharged without any neurological sequelae and coronary artery lesions. A total of 12 qualified foreign literature were retrieved, with no Chinese literature searched. Seventeen children were reported, the median age was 6.5 years (range: 1-14 years), among them 11 cases were children over 5 years old, and 4 cases were complicated with coronary artery lesions. All children had neurological symptoms, such as consciousness disorder, visual hallucination or convulsion. MRI conformed to MERS imaging changes. After active treatment, the neurological manifestations and radiological abnormalities completely disappeared, leaving no neurological sequelae. Kawasaki disease complicated with MERS had not been reported in China by now. Literature that identified Kawasaki disease complicated with MERS mostly occurred in children over 5 years old. Cranial MRI examination is helpful for early diagnosis. Timely treatment can reverse MERS in a short time, without neurological sequelae left.

    Ureteral stenosis following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A case report
    Guan-peng HAN,Yang-yang XU,Zhi-hua LI,Chang MENG,Hong-jian ZHU,Kun-lin YANG,Li-qun ZHOU,Xue-song LI
    2022, (4):  762-765.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.029    
    Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1043KB) ( 8 )   Save
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    Ureteral stenosis is a comparatively rare complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The etiology is still unclear and most believe that this may be due to the reactivation of BK virus in a state of immunodeficiency. In the later stages of ureteral stenosis with scarring, invasive interventions must be taken to relieve the hydronephrosis. Common treatments, such as D-J stent placement and permanent nephrostomy may not only entail the risk of infection, but also seriously affect the quality of life. Few cases of surgical intervention have been reported. In this article, a 25-year-old female was admitted to Peking University First Hospital suffering from recurrent flank pain. Seven years before, she developed hemorrhagic cystitis and bilateral urethritis 40 days after allogeneic HSCT. After continuous bladder irrigation and antiviral therapy, the left-sided hydronephrosis gradually alleviated while the right-sided one did not improve. D-J stents were used for urine drainage for 7 years before percuta-neous nephrostomy. Preoperative antegrade pyelography revealed significant hydronephrosis in the right kidney with long stricture of proximal-middle ureter. After comprehensive decision, she underwent ileal ureter replacement. The operation was successful. The segmental lesion was dissected and the scar tissue was removed. A 25 cm intestinal tube was isolated to connect the pelvis and bladder. An anti-reflux nipple was created at the distal end of ileal ureter to prevent the potential infection. The blood loss was minimal. After surgery, the drainage tube was removed in 2 weeks, the nephrostomy tube and the D-J stent was removed in 3 months. Follow-up mainly included clinical assessment, serologic testing, renal ultrasonography, blood gas analysis and radiological examination. During the follow-up of 6 years, she was symptom-free and no postoperative complications occurred. The serum creatinine level was stable. No hydronephrosis was observed under ultrasonography. Obvious peristaltic waves and ureteral jets of the ileal ureter was confirmed on cine magnetic resonance urography. To sum up, ureteral stenosis after HSCT is relatively rare. Obstruction caused by scarring is usually irreversible and surgical intervention should be designed according to the location and length of the lesion. Ileal ureter replacement can be a safe, feasible and effective method to solve this kind of complex stricture.

    Bipolar androgen therapy followed by immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer: A report of 4 cases
    Sheng-jie LIU,Hui-min HOU,Zheng-tong LV,Xin DING,Lu WANG,Lei ZHANG,Ming LIU
    2022, (4):  766-769.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.030    
    Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 21 )   Save
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    The relationship between androgen and prostate cancer treatment has plagued the field of urologic oncology. To investigate the efficacy and safety of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) followed by immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In August 2020, Beijing Hospital conducted an investigator-initiated study: Bipolar androgen therapy followed by immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Up to now, the study has included 4 patients who completed the entire cycle of treatment. The mean age of the patients was 74.5 (68 to 82) years old, the mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 20.8 (9.9 to 8.36) μg/L, the mean testosterone was 0.50 (0.00 to 1.81) μg/L, and the Gleason score were 10 and 9, 7, 7 respectively. The pain scale score before treatment was 1.5 (1 to 2). In this study, 4 patients completed the entire cycle of treatment, and the treatment effect of the patients showed great heterogeneity. PSA in case 1 decreased from 24.0 μg/L to 0.47 μg/L, testosterone increased from 0.175 6 μg/L to 2.62 μg/L. PSA in case 2 increased from 9.939 μg/L to 168.536 μg/L, and testosterone increased from 0.0 μg/L increased to 2.85 μg/L. PSA increased from 13.31 μg/L to 39.278 μg/L in case 3, testosterone increased from 0.0 μg/L to 2.54 μg/L. and PSA increased from 36.0 μg/L to 350.2 μg/L in the case 4, testosterone increased from 1.81 μg/L to 3.85 μg/L. Except for one patient who showed significant PSA remission, the PSA levels of the remaining three patients remained high overall. There were no adverse reactions reported in 4 patients. In the follow-up, case 1 continued to use PD-1 monoclonal antibody (median progression free survival time was 10 months). Two patients who had previously been resistant to enzalutamide received enzalutamide again after the whole cycle of treatment, and their PSA decreased again, which indicated that the patient was sensitive to enzalutamide again. BAT had a certain therapeutic effect on mCRPC patients, and the safety was controllable. Its tumor control effect still needed long-term follow-up verification in large-sample clinical trials. BAT has a certain therapeutic effect on mCRPC patient, especially the resensitivity of tumors to enzalutamide can be restored. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in patients with prostate cancer treated with BAT and enzalutamide.

    Anesthesia management of athletes' operation in Beijing Olympic Winter Games
    Zhi-yu KANG,Lei-lei WANG,Yong-zheng HAN,Xiang-yang GUO
    2022, (4):  770-773.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.031    
    Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (596KB) ( 35 )   Save
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    According to literature reports, the injury rate of the athletes in Olympic Winter Games recent years was as high as 10%-14%. Combined with the background of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the medical insurance work of the 24th Olympic Winter Games held in Beijing had put forward more complicated requirements and more severe challenges. In order to better optimize anesthesia management, this article summarized the perioperative treatment of athletes in Olympic Winter Games, the safety protection strategy of medical staff under general anesthesia, and the potential impact of peri-operative drugs on athletes. Anesthesiologists, as the core members of the rescue team, should be familiar with the particularity of operative anesthesia of athletes, sum up relevant experience to ensure the safety of perioperative patients. So all kinds of technical measures should be taken in the process of operation to minimize the indoor pollution caused by the patient's cough. For example, all the patients should wear N95 masks from the ward to the operating room, and after the operation, wear the N95 masks back to the ward. Although the International Olympic Committee had banned more than 200 drugs for participants and athletes who had to strictly follow International Olympic Committee requirements during anesthesia, the athletes were no longer participating in this Olympic Winter Games, so opioids (sufentanil and remifentanil) and glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) could be used according to the actual needs of surgery and anesthesia. Five athletes in Yanqing competition area underwent surgical anesthesia in Peking University Third Hospital Yanqing Hospital. All the five patients received general anesthesia, of whom four underwent orthopaedic surgery and one underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. General anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway was the first choice in the five patients. And the pain after orthopaedic surgery was severe and nerve block technique could effectively relieve the pain after surgery. Three patients received ultrasound-guided nerve block analgesia, the postoperative analgesia lasted 36 h. After the operation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was infused intravenously in the ward and all the patients recovered uneventfully. As the core member of the trauma rescue team, anesthesiologists should be familiar with the particularity of the athletes' surgical anesthesia, do a good job in medical security, and summarize relevant experience to ensure the life safety of the perioperative patients.

    Application of Raman-based technologies in the detection of urological tumors
    Zhe HAO,Shu-hua YUE,Li-qun ZHOU
    2022, (4):  779-784.  doi: 10.19723/j.issn.1671-167X.2022.04.033    
    Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (633KB) ( 22 )   Save
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    Urinary system tumors affect a huge number of individuals, and are frequently recurrent and progressing following surgery, necessitating lifelong surveillance. As a result, early and precise diagnosis of urinary system cancers is important for prevention and therapy. Histopathology is now the golden stan-dard for the diagnosis, but it is invasive, time-consuming, and inconvenient for initial diagnosis and re-gular follow-up assessment. Endoscopy can directly witness the tumor's structure, but intrusive detection is likely to cause harm to the patient's organs, and it is apt to create other hazards in frequently examined patients. Imaging is a valuable non-invasive and quick assessment tool; however, it can be difficult to define the type of lesions and has limited sensitivity for early tumor detection. The conventional approaches for detecting tumors have their own set of limitations. Thus, detection methods that combine non-invasive detection, label-free detection, high sensitivity and high specificity are urgently needed to aid clinical diagnosis. Optical diagnostics and imaging are increasingly being employed in healthcare settings in a variety of sectors. Raman scattering can assess changes in molecular signatures in cancer cells or tissues based on the interaction with vibrational modes of common molecular bonds. Due to the advantages of label-free, strong chemical selectivity, and high sensitivity, Raman scattering, especially coherent Raman scattering microscopy imaging with high spatial resolution, has been widely used in biomedical research. And quantity studies have shown that it has a good application in the detection and diagnosis of bladder can-cer, renal clear cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, and other cancers. In this paper, several nonlinear imaging techniques based on Raman scattering technology are briefly described, including Raman spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. And we will discuss the application of these techniques for detecting urologic malignancy. Future research directions are predicted using the advantages and limitations of the aforesaid methodologies in the research. For clinical practice, Raman scattering technology is intended to enable more accurate, rapid, and non-invasive in early diagnosis, intraoperative margins, and pathological grading basis for clinical practice.


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Sponsor: Peking University
Editor-in-Chief: ZHAN Qi-min
Executive Editor-in-Chief: ZENG Gui-fang
Editing and Publishing: Editorial Department of Journal of Peking University (Health Sciences)
ISSN: 1671-167X
CN: 11-4691/R